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High Yield One liners for Medical Exam

Medical exam is one of the vast subject to be memorize. here are some of the major points that should be focus for the medical exam especially to the MBBS students. The summary to be memorize are listed in as one liners. These HIGH- YIELDING ONE LINERS  for exams are very easy to remember. These liners could be important as the last minute revision.

High Yield One liners for Medical Exam

  • Subendothelial Deposits are seen in SLE patients
  • Subepithelial Humps are seen in Acute Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis
  • Linear Subendothelial are seen in Goodpasture’s (Type II)
  • Mesangial Deposits are seen in IgA Nephropathy
  • Spike and Dome are seen in Membranous
  • Subendothelial Humps are seen in  Membranoproliferative
  • Azithromycin – administered toHIV + patients can prevent Mycobacterium Avium
  • Ethambutol – inhibits arabinosyltransferase which polymerizesarabinose into arabinan etc. SideEffects à Optic Neuritis
  • Rifampin – inhibits bacterial DNAdependent RNA polymerase andthus prevents transcription of DNA into mRNA.
  • Isoniazid – inhibits mycolic acidsynthesis.
  • FF = GFR/RPF GFR = CreatinineClearance/Inulin  RPF = PAH
  • Fibroadenoma – cellular myxoidstroma, sometimes there arecompressed cystic spaces.
  • Spongiosis – epidermalaccumulation of edematous fluid inthe intercellular spaces.
  • Diphenoxylate – opiate anti-diarrheal structurally related toMeperidine.
    Octreotide – good for secretorydiarrhea, which is a SomatostatinAnalog
    Urease – converts urea to carbondioxide and ammonia and thusincreases pH
    Radiation Therapy – causes 1) DNAdouble strand breakage 2)formation of free radical
    Methadone – has a long half life
    In Fetal Lungs – after 30 weeks there is an increase in Lecithin
    After 36 weeks there is a rise in Phosphatydylglycerol
    Males with 5 α reductase deficiency – feminized externalgenitalia, small phallus andHypospadias are common.
    Repair Damage – Glycosylase ÃEndonuclease à Lyase à DNAPolymerase à Ligase
    H. Pylori – most common cause ofduodenal ulcers
    CMV in immunocompromised –Mononucleosis
    Retinitis in CMV – HIV+ Patients
    Primary CNS Lymphoma – most commonly associated with AIDS
    Squamous Cell Lung Cancer –produces Parathyroid Hormone Related Peptide, which in turn will decrease PTH
    Campylobacter – can be transmitted from domestic animals
    Shigella – is transmitted via fecaloral in day care centers
    Keratin – marker of epithelial cellorigin.
    Secretin – produced by Sendocrine cells in the duodenum,that increases bicarbonate secretionfrom exocrine pancreas into the small bowel.
    Alprazolam – benzodiazepine with the shortest half life, which is used in Acute Anxiety.
    Diazepam, Chlordiazepoxide and Clonazepam – longest half life, used in prophylaxis.
    Sheets of Primitive Cells withMany Mitotic Figures –Medulloblastoma
    Most Common Tumors inChildren:
    Pilocytic Astrocytoma – RosenthalFibers
    Medulloblastoma- sheets of smallblue cells, many mitotic figures
    Ependyoma – can causeHydrocephalus and form Rosettes
    Orthostatic Hypotension – sideeffects of α adrenergic blockers.
    AML – has associations with t(15,17), t(8,21) and Auer Rods arestained with Myeloperoxidase.
    CLL – deletion on Chromosome 13
    Mantle Cell B Lymphoma – t(11,14)
    Dobutamine – causes increase incardiac contractility and increase inHeart Rate
    Tumors of Schwann Cells – arederived from neural Crest Cells.
    Patients with CGD – susceptible to1) Staph Aureus 2) Pseudomonas 3)SerratiaNocardia 5) Aspergillus
    Rosenthal Fibers – with granulareosinophilic bodies are seen inPilocytic Astrocytoma. They are welldifferentiated comprised of spindlecells with hair like glial projections
    Atropine – reverses muscariniceffects but does not prevent thedevelopment of nicotinic effectssuch as muscle paralysis
    Pralidoxime – reverses bothmuscarinic and nicotinic effects oforganophosphates by “restoring”cholinesterase.
    Calcium – binds to Troponin C andthen uncovers tropomyosin sites,thus allowing actin to bind tomyosin.
    S 3 Heart Sound – can be heard ifthe patient lies down in Left LateralDecubitus Position or ExhalesCompletely
    RBF = Renal Plasma Flow/ (1-Hematocrit)
    In Metabolic Alkalosis – measurepatient’s Urinary Chloride
    Germinoma – tumors of PinealGland, formed in children andadolescents.
    Will present with 1) PrecociousPuberty due to β-HCG Production(similar in testicular seminoma) 2)Obstructive Hydrocephalus 3)Parinaud Syndrome – paralysis ofupward gaze.
    Ultraviolet Specific Endonuclease –initiates repair by nicking thestrand at Thymine Dimer. Thisenzyme is missing in XerodermaPigmentosum
    SER – functions in synthesis ofLipids, Carbohydrate Metabolismand Detoxification of HarmfulSubstances
    Uretero Pelvic Junction – mostcommon site of obstruction
    Increased Intraocular Pressure –most common side effect oftreatment of Bradycardia withAtropine.
    Mutation in Glycoprotein – willcause changes in the host and theymediate attachment to target hostcell.
    cAMP pathway – α2, β1 and β2
    Inositol Pathway – α1 adrenergic,muscarinic, cholinergic
    Ion Channel – Nicotinic,Cholinergic.
    Ampicillin – must be added totreat infants with Meningitis.Ceftriaxone covers all organisms,but Listeria Monocytogenis is killedby Ampicillin.
    B 19 Fifth’s Disease – causesaplastic crises (bone marrow)
    Eaton Lambers Syndrome -associated with Lung Cancer,similar to Myasthenia Gravis.Antibodies are against pre-synapticCalcium Channels.
    Myotonic Dystrophy – triplicaterepeat, movement frontal baldness,cataracts are seen. Cannot LoosenHand Grip.
    Cholinomimetics– indicated inUrinary Retention Paralytic Ileusand Glaucoma
    HUS – after E. Coli –Microangiopathic Hemolytic Anemia
    Segmental Viruses (Rotavirus andOrthomyxovirus)- capable ofGenetic Shift.
    Paget’s Disease – increase inOsteoclasts, then increase inOsteoblasts, which will increaseAlkaline Phosphatase.
    Arginase – enzyme in Urea Cycleproduces Urea and Ornithine fromArginine.
    Minute Ventilation – product ofTidal Volume and RR and includesDead Space.
    Neurophysis – carriers forOxytocin and ADH in PosteriorPituitary.
    Epinephrine – increases SystolicBP (α1 Effect)
    Increase Heart Rate (β1 Effect)
    Decreases Diastolic (β2 Effect)
    Pretreatment with Propranolol Ãeliminates β Effects and Leaves αEffects Only.
    Protein C Defficiency in WarfarinTherapy – will exaggerate theresponse and cause HypercoagulableState with Skin Necrosis
    Neonates with Hypothyroidism -weak, pale, dry. Macroglossia andUmbilical Hernia
    Acyclovir – incorporates into newlyreplicated Viral DNA
    Hemorrhagic Cystitis in Children –Adenovirus (especially in Males)
    Uric Acid precipitates – collectingducts due to Low Urine pH.
    Insulin – drug of choice forGestational Diabetes.
    AML – formation of PML/RAR αfusion gene, unable to signal forproper differentiaton
    Auer Rods – stained withmyeloperoxidase
    Donepezil – Tx for Alzheimer’sDisease, is a CholinesteraseInhibitor and also you would addVitamin E.
    NMDA Receptor in CNSoverstimulationby Glutamate –thought to increase AD Symptoms.Tx with Memantine (antagonist)
    Barbiturates – increase duration ofChloride Channel Opening
    Benzodiazepines– increasefrequency of Chloride Channels.
    Serum Fibrinogen – must bemonitored in DIC.
    Narcolepsy – deficiency or LowLevels of Neurotransmitter Orexin( Hypocretin)
    Hawthorne Effect – tendency of astudy population to affect anoutcome due to what is studied.
    Mullerian Inhibitory Factor –secreted by Sertoli Cells
    Primary infection with HSV –more spread out, but Reactivationis more Localized to 1 side.
    S-100 Positive – Schwannoma andMelanoma. Both are from NeuralCrest Cells.
    T- Lymphocytes – ParacorticalZone
    B-Lymphocytes – Germinal Centersof Lymph Node
    Turner Syndrome – heavilymethylated DNA due to LowTranscription Activity(Heterochromatin is nottranscriptionally active, it’s toocondensed)
    Adenovirus – low grade fever,throat pain, pharyngoconjunctivitis,can be transmitted in SummerCamps.
    Fragile X – gene methylation, andthis is inactive, because it’scondensed.
    Burr Cells, Helmet Cells -Mechanical Red Cell Destruction.Pt’s with Prosthetic Valves.
    When Vaccinated – Virus Entryinto cells is impaired.
    Sotalol – β Blocker with Class III(Potassium Channel Blocker)Properties will cause Bradycardiaand QT Prolongation.
    Pre B-ALL Ã TdT + CD 10 and CD19
    Pre T-ALL Ã CD2, CD3, CD4, CD5,CD7, CD8, CD1a, TdT
    Leukocyte Alkaline Phosphatase –decreased in CML, increased ornormal in Leukemoid Reactionwhich is 50,000 WBC.
    Homocystinuria (similar toMarfan’s) – deficiency ofCystathione Synthase. Tx withPyridoxine Supplements (B6)
    Ring Enhanced Lesions –Toxoplasmosis, Seizures
    Dihydrobiopterin Reductase –Cofactor for Both PhenylalanineHydroxylase and TyrosineHydroxylase.
    Osteoblasts convert to Osteocytes –osteocytes are connected by GapJunctions.
    Lecithinase – alpha toxin,produced by C. Perfringes and hasan ability to degrade Lecithin, maincomponent of PhospholipidMembrane
    Terminal Bronchioles – lined byciliated simple cuboidal epithelium.
    Nipple Retraction – in BreastCancer is usually due to infiltrationof Cooper’s Ligament by Cancer.
    Prepatellar Bursa – commonlyseen in roofers, carpenters, peoplewho are kneeling all the time.
    Acute Myelogenous Leukemia – isassociated with t(15,17), wheregene for Retinoic Acid istransferred from Ch. 17 to Ch. 15
    Sarcoidosis – presents withincreased number of CD4 + T cells.
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