Medical exam is one of the vast subject to be memorize. here are some of the major points that should ...
Medical exam is one of the vast subject to be memorize. here are some of the major points that should be focus for the medical exam especially to the MBBS students. The summary to be memorize are listed in as one liners. These HIGH- YIELDING ONE LINERS for exams are very easy to remember. These liners could be important as the last minute revision.
High Yield One liners for Medical Exam
Subendothelial Deposits are seen in SLE patients
Subepithelial Humps are seen in Acute Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis
Linear Subendothelial are seen in Goodpasture’s (Type II)
Mesangial Deposits are seen in IgA Nephropathy
Spike and Dome are seen in Membranous
Subendothelial Humps are seen in Membranoproliferative
Azithromycin – administered toHIV + patients can prevent Mycobacterium Avium
Ethambutol – inhibits arabinosyltransferase which polymerizesarabinose into arabinan etc. SideEffects Ã Optic Neuritis
Rifampin – inhibits bacterial DNAdependent RNA polymerase andthus prevents transcription of DNA into mRNA.
Isoniazid – inhibits mycolic acidsynthesis.
FF = GFR/RPF GFR = CreatinineClearance/Inulin RPF = PAH
Fibroadenoma – cellular myxoidstroma, sometimes there arecompressed cystic spaces.
Spongiosis - epidermalaccumulation of edematous fluid inthe intercellular spaces.
Diphenoxylate – opiate anti-diarrheal structurally related toMeperidine.
Octreotide – good for secretorydiarrhea, which is a SomatostatinAnalog
Urease – converts urea to carbondioxide and ammonia and thusincreases pH
Radiation Therapy - causes 1) DNAdouble strand breakage 2)formation of free radical
Methadone – has a long half life
In Fetal Lungs - after 30 weeks there is an increase in Lecithin
After 36 weeks there is a rise in Phosphatydylglycerol
Males with 5 α reductase deficiency - feminized externalgenitalia, small phallus andHypospadias are common.
Repair Damage – Glycosylase ÃEndonuclease Ã Lyase Ã DNAPolymerase Ã Ligase
H. Pylori – most common cause ofduodenal ulcers
CMV in immunocompromised –Mononucleosis
Retinitis in CMV – HIV+ Patients
Primary CNS Lymphoma – most commonly associated with AIDS
Squamous Cell Lung Cancer –produces Parathyroid Hormone Related Peptide, which in turn will decrease PTH
Campylobacter – can be transmitted from domestic animals
Shigella - is transmitted via fecaloral in day care centers
Keratin - marker of epithelial cellorigin.
Secretin - produced by Sendocrine cells in the duodenum,that increases bicarbonate secretionfrom exocrine pancreas into the small bowel.
Alprazolam – benzodiazepine with the shortest half life, which is used in Acute Anxiety.
Diazepam, Chlordiazepoxide and Clonazepam – longest half life, used in prophylaxis.
Sheets of Primitive Cells withMany Mitotic Figures –Medulloblastoma
Most Common Tumors inChildren:
Pilocytic Astrocytoma - RosenthalFibers
Medulloblastoma- sheets of smallblue cells, many mitotic figures
Ependyoma – can causeHydrocephalus and form Rosettes
Orthostatic Hypotension – sideeffects of α adrenergic blockers.
AML - has associations with t(15,17), t(8,21) and Auer Rods arestained with Myeloperoxidase.
CLL – deletion on Chromosome 13
Mantle Cell B Lymphoma – t(11,14)
Dobutamine – causes increase incardiac contractility and increase inHeart Rate
Tumors of Schwann Cells – arederived from neural Crest Cells.
Patients with CGD – susceptible to1) Staph Aureus 2) Pseudomonas 3)SerratiaNocardia 5) Aspergillus
Rosenthal Fibers – with granulareosinophilic bodies are seen inPilocytic Astrocytoma. They are welldifferentiated comprised of spindlecells with hair like glial projections
Atropine – reverses muscariniceffects but does not prevent thedevelopment of nicotinic effectssuch as muscle paralysis
Pralidoxime – reverses bothmuscarinic and nicotinic effects oforganophosphates by “restoring”cholinesterase.
Calcium – binds to Troponin C andthen uncovers tropomyosin sites,thus allowing actin to bind tomyosin.
S 3 Heart Sound – can be heard ifthe patient lies down in Left LateralDecubitus Position or ExhalesCompletely
RBF = Renal Plasma Flow/ (1-Hematocrit)
In Metabolic Alkalosis – measurepatient’s Urinary Chloride
Germinoma - tumors of PinealGland, formed in children andadolescents.
Will present with 1) PrecociousPuberty due to β-HCG Production(similar in testicular seminoma) 2)Obstructive Hydrocephalus 3)Parinaud Syndrome – paralysis ofupward gaze.
Ultraviolet Specific Endonuclease –initiates repair by nicking thestrand at Thymine Dimer. Thisenzyme is missing in XerodermaPigmentosum
SER – functions in synthesis ofLipids, Carbohydrate Metabolismand Detoxification of HarmfulSubstances
Uretero Pelvic Junction – mostcommon site of obstruction
Increased Intraocular Pressure –most common side effect oftreatment of Bradycardia withAtropine.
Mutation in Glycoprotein – willcause changes in the host and theymediate attachment to target hostcell.
cAMP pathway - α2, β1 and β2
Inositol Pathway – α1 adrenergic,muscarinic, cholinergic
Ion Channel – Nicotinic,Cholinergic.
Ampicillin – must be added totreat infants with Meningitis.Ceftriaxone covers all organisms,but Listeria Monocytogenis is killedby Ampicillin.
B 19 Fifth’s Disease – causesaplastic crises (bone marrow)
Eaton Lambers Syndrome -associated with Lung Cancer,similar to Myasthenia Gravis.Antibodies are against pre-synapticCalcium Channels.
Myotonic Dystrophy – triplicaterepeat, movement frontal baldness,cataracts are seen. Cannot LoosenHand Grip.
Cholinomimetics– indicated inUrinary Retention Paralytic Ileusand Glaucoma
HUS – after E. Coli –Microangiopathic Hemolytic Anemia
Segmental Viruses (Rotavirus andOrthomyxovirus)- capable ofGenetic Shift.
Paget’s Disease - increase inOsteoclasts, then increase inOsteoblasts, which will increaseAlkaline Phosphatase.
Arginase - enzyme in Urea Cycleproduces Urea and Ornithine fromArginine.
Minute Ventilation - product ofTidal Volume and RR and includesDead Space.
Neurophysis – carriers forOxytocin and ADH in PosteriorPituitary.
Epinephrine – increases SystolicBP (α1 Effect)
Increase Heart Rate (β1 Effect)
Decreases Diastolic (β2 Effect)
Pretreatment with Propranolol Ãeliminates β Effects and Leaves αEffects Only.
Protein C Defficiency in WarfarinTherapy – will exaggerate theresponse and cause HypercoagulableState with Skin Necrosis
Neonates with Hypothyroidism -weak, pale, dry. Macroglossia andUmbilical Hernia
Acyclovir - incorporates into newlyreplicated Viral DNA
Hemorrhagic Cystitis in Children –Adenovirus (especially in Males)
Uric Acid precipitates - collectingducts due to Low Urine pH.
Insulin - drug of choice forGestational Diabetes.
AML - formation of PML/RAR αfusion gene, unable to signal forproper differentiaton
Auer Rods – stained withmyeloperoxidase
Donepezil – Tx for Alzheimer’sDisease, is a CholinesteraseInhibitor and also you would addVitamin E.
NMDA Receptor in CNSoverstimulationby Glutamate –thought to increase AD Symptoms.Tx with Memantine (antagonist)
Barbiturates – increase duration ofChloride Channel Opening
Benzodiazepines– increasefrequency of Chloride Channels.
Serum Fibrinogen – must bemonitored in DIC.
Narcolepsy – deficiency or LowLevels of Neurotransmitter Orexin( Hypocretin)
Hawthorne Effect - tendency of astudy population to affect anoutcome due to what is studied.
Mullerian Inhibitory Factor –secreted by Sertoli Cells
Primary infection with HSV –more spread out, but Reactivationis more Localized to 1 side.
S-100 Positive – Schwannoma andMelanoma. Both are from NeuralCrest Cells.
T- Lymphocytes – ParacorticalZone
B-Lymphocytes - Germinal Centersof Lymph Node
Turner Syndrome - heavilymethylated DNA due to LowTranscription Activity(Heterochromatin is nottranscriptionally active, it’s toocondensed)
Adenovirus – low grade fever,throat pain, pharyngoconjunctivitis,can be transmitted in SummerCamps.
Fragile X - gene methylation, andthis is inactive, because it’scondensed.
Burr Cells, Helmet Cells -Mechanical Red Cell Destruction.Pt’s with Prosthetic Valves.
When Vaccinated - Virus Entryinto cells is impaired.
Sotalol – β Blocker with Class III(Potassium Channel Blocker)Properties will cause Bradycardiaand QT Prolongation.
Pre B-ALL Ã TdT + CD 10 and CD19
Pre T-ALL Ã CD2, CD3, CD4, CD5,CD7, CD8, CD1a, TdT
Leukocyte Alkaline Phosphatase –decreased in CML, increased ornormal in Leukemoid Reactionwhich is 50,000 WBC.
Homocystinuria (similar toMarfan’s) – deficiency ofCystathione Synthase. Tx withPyridoxine Supplements (B6)
Ring Enhanced Lesions –Toxoplasmosis, Seizures
Dihydrobiopterin Reductase –Cofactor for Both PhenylalanineHydroxylase and TyrosineHydroxylase.
Osteoblasts convert to Osteocytes –osteocytes are connected by GapJunctions.
Lecithinase – alpha toxin,produced by C. Perfringes and hasan ability to degrade Lecithin, maincomponent of PhospholipidMembrane
Terminal Bronchioles – lined byciliated simple cuboidal epithelium.
Nipple Retraction – in BreastCancer is usually due to infiltrationof Cooper’s Ligament by Cancer.
Prepatellar Bursa – commonlyseen in roofers, carpenters, peoplewho are kneeling all the time.
Acute Myelogenous Leukemia – isassociated with t(15,17), wheregene for Retinoic Acid istransferred from Ch. 17 to Ch. 15
Sarcoidosis – presents withincreased number of CD4 + T cells.