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Neuroanatomy Revision Notes for Exam

Neuroanatomy Revision Notes for Exam

Last minute Medical entrance exam revisions related
spinal pathways study notes 2
  • brainweighs 350 g in the newborn and 1400 g in the adult.
  • Cerebral Blood Flow /Oxygen/glucose
  • Cerebral Blood Flow #50ml /min/100gm of tissue
  • Glucose extraction is 5mg /min/100gm of tissue
  • Brain Consumes 20%of total systemic oxygen delivered
  • Brain oxygen consumption is 3.5 ml/min/100gm of tissue
  • Cerebral hemispheres .
    • are interconnected by the corpus callosum.
  • Cuneus
    • lies between the parieto-occipital sulcus and the calcarine sulcus.
    • contains the visual cortex (areas 17, 18, and 19)
  • cranial nerves exits the brainstem from the dorsal aspect #CN4
  • Primary auditory cortex (41, 42) is found in the #Heschl gyrus.
  • The parietal lobe includes the angular gyrus, which receives visual impulses (39)
  • Destruction of the angular and supramarginal gyri on the dominant (usually left) side gives rise
  • to the Gerstmann syndrome, whose symptoms include agraphia, acalculia, finger agnosia and left-right disorientation
  • The pulvinar nucleus is the largest nucleus of the thalamus
  • Denticulate ligaments
    • consist of two lateral flattened bands of pial tissue.
    • adhere to the spinal dura mater with 21 attachment
  • Subarachnoid space extends, in the adult, below the conus medullaris to the level of the second sacral #S2 vertebra, the lumbar cistern
  • Third ventricle–>contains a pair of choroid plexuses in its #roof.
  • The total volume of CSF found in the subarachnoid space and cerebral ventricles is 140ml
  • Which part of the ventricular system contains choroid plexus? Third ventricle
  • the normal quantity of CSF daily production–> 500ml
  • The ambient cistern contains the trochlear nerve (CN IV)
  • The fourth ventricle contains the two foramina of Luschka, which drain into the two cerebellopontine angle cisterns.
  • cerebello(m)edullary cistern receives CSF via the foramen of (M)agendie Artery of Adamkiewicz. Its origin varies from T12 to L4, and it usually arises on the left side
  • Arteries of the Brain
    • supply 15% of the cardiac output to the brain.
    • provide the brain with 20% of the oxygen used by the body.
    • have a normal blood flow of 50 ml/100 g of brain tissue per minute
  • Anterior choroidal artery
    • arises from the internal carotid artery
  • Anterior communicating artery
    • is the most common site of berry aneurysms.
  • Anterior inferior cerebellar artery
    • gives rise to the labyrinthine artery in 85% of the population
  • Middle meningeal artery
    • is a branch of the maxillary artery.
    • enters the cranium via the foramen spinosum
  • trauma of middle meningeal artery leads to extradural hematoma between dura matter and culvira
  • Superficial cerebral veins
    • drain into the superior sagittal sinus (bridging veins).
    • Laceration of these vessels results in #subdural hemorrhage (hematoma).
  • Superior sagittal sinus
    • extends from the foramen cecum to the internal occipital protuberance and usually terminates in the #right transverse sinus
  • Inferior sagittal sinus
    • courses in the inferior edge of the falx cerebri.
    • joins the great cerebral vein to form the straight sinus
  • straight sinus drains into #left transvesrse sinus àtransverse sinus drain into sigmoid sinus which drain into internal jugular vein àweakness of leg anterior cerebral artery
  • epidural hematoma #lucid interval (repeated Important)
  • The posterior communicating artery may give rise to a berry aneurysm, which compresses the third cranial nerve and results incomplete third nerve palsy(Eyes will be down and out there will be dropping of eye lid and pupils will be dilated ..
  • the anterior inferior cerebellar artery(AICA) usually gives rise to the labyrinthine artery, which supplies the structures of the inner ear (i.e., the cochlea and vestibular apparatus
  • The facial nucleus and the spinal trigeminal nucleus and tract are supplied by the anterior
  • inferior cerebellar artery(AICA). so lateral pontine syndrome is differentiated from lateral medullary syndrome on basis oF fascial palsy..
  • AICA lateral pontine syndrome ,PICA (Lateral medullary syndrome)
  • anterior spinal artery lesion leads to median medullary syndrome associated with tonGue paralysis
  • Laceration of the superior cerebral veins (bridging veins) results in subdural hemorrhage(hematoma)
  • Superior and inferior opthalmic veins drains into transverse sinus.
  • Folium is part of cerebellum.
  • Insula lies in #Lateral sulcus
  • Primary olfactory cortex in uncus
  • Opthamoplegia with contralateral hemiplegia leison in #Midbrain
  • homnimous hemianopia and hemiplegia leison in correx or internal capsule
  • Pure motor stroke with no sensory loss #Internal capsule
  • pure sensory stroke #Thalamus
  • hypotonia and pendular knee jerk #Cerebellum
  • trunkal ataxia #Vermis
  • Hypotonia ,loss of balance ,tremers fall to ipsilateral side of leison #Cerebellum
  • Hemiplegia with tongue paralysis #ASA or median medullary syndrome.
  • Localization of leison
  • opthalmoplegia with contralateral hemiplegia #Midbrain
  • homonymous hemianopia with hemiplegia #Cerebral cortex or #internal capsule
  • hemiplegia with tongue paralysis #ASA or median medullary syndrome
  • leg weakness #Anterior cerebral artery
  • pure motor stroke #Internal capsule
  • pure sensory stroke #thalamus
  • hypotonia ,tremer,ataxia fall to ipsilateral side of leison #cerebellum
  • resting tremer #basal ganglia
  • intention tremer #Cerebellum
  • fascial palsy with hornor and hemiplegia and other features #AICA (AICA poop face droop)
  • hornor hemiplegia and other features with no face involvement #PICA
  • dominant parietal lobe leison #gerstman syndrome(finger agnosia ,agraphia ,Acalculia)non dominant parietal lobe (Hemineglect syndrome)
  • occipital infarct (Cortical blindness)
  • Proprioceptive fibers from muscle of mastication contain in…?Mesenchephalic nuclous of CN.5.
  • Frontal lobe leads to Disinhibition and deficits in concentration may have reemergence of #primitive reflexes.
  • Frontal eye fields Eyes look #toward lesion.
  • (PPRf)Paramedian pontine reticular formation
  • Eyes look #away from side of lesion.
  • Medial longitudinal fasciculus
  • Internuclear ophthalmoplegia (impairedadduction of ipsilateral eye; nystagmus of contralateral eye with abduction).

Multiple sclerosis.

  • Dominant parietal cortex
    • Agraphia, acalculia, finger agnosia, left-right
    • Gerstmann syndrome.
  • Nondominant parietal cortex
    • Agnosia of the contralateral side of the world.
  • Hemispatial neglect syndrome.
  • Hippocampus(bilateral) #Anterograde amnesia—inability to make new
  • Basal ganglia May result in tremor at #rest, chorea, athetosis. Parkinson disease, Huntington disease.
  • Subthalamic nucleus Contralateral #hemiballismus.
  • Mammillary bodies(bilateral)
  • Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome—Confusion,Ataxia, Nystagmus, Ophthalmoplegia,
  • memory loss (#anterograde and #retrogradeamnesia), confabulation, personality changes.
  • Wernicke problems come in a CAN O’ beer.
  • Amygdala (bilateral) Kluver-Bucy syndrome—disinhibited behavior(eg, hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality).
  • HSV-1 encephalitis.
  • Superior colliculus Parinaud syndrome—paralysis of conjugatevertical gaze (rostral interstitial nucleus also involved).
  • Stroke, hydrocephalus, pinealoma. Reticular activating

system (midbrain)

  • Reduced levels of arousal and wakefulness (eg, coma).

Cerebellar hemisphere Intention tremor, limb ataxia, loss of balance;

  • damage to cerebellum p ipsilateral deficits;fall toward side of lesion.
  • Cerebellar hemispheres are laterally located—affect lateral limbs.
  • Cerebellar vermis Truncal ataxia, dysarthria.
  • Vermis is centrally located—affects central body.

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