Lupus (Lystemic Lupus erythematosus or SLE) is an autoimmune disease, in which the immune system attacks the body's own tissues assuming as though they ...
Lupus (Lystemic Lupus erythematosus or SLE) is an autoimmune disease, in which the immune system attacks the body's own tissues assuming as though they were foreign .It is not contagious and no one knows exact causes behind that body start attacking its own tissues. A person may be born with a certain genetic makeup that affects how the immune system functions or makes him or her at risk for lupus. A combination of factors can trigger the autoimmune process, some of which may affect one person but not another.
Epidemiologically, it is rare disease associated with considerable morbidity and 5-fold increase in mortality compared age and gender matched controls. People of African, Asian, and Native American descent are more likely to develop lupus than are Caucasians. Although it can occur in men and women, 90% of people diagnosed with the disease are women. Women of childbearing age (14 to 45 years old) are most often affected.
Clinical features: -
Renal involvement in people with lupus can be life threatening and may occur in up to half of those with lupus. It’s one of the major determinants of prognosis. Regular monitoring of BP and urinalysis is essential.Typical renal lesion: PROLIFERATIVE GOLEMERULONEPHRITIS; characterized by hematuria, proteinuria and urinary casts.Cardiovascular:-
Most common manifestation: PERICARDITIS where as Less common: ENDOCARDITIS and LIBMAN-SACKS ENDOCARDITIS.
Endocarditis => due to accumulation on heart valves of sterile fibrin containing vegetations which is a manifestation of hypercoagulability associated with antiphospholipid antibodies (APLA).
Risk of Atherosclerosis, Stroke and MI is greatly increased => due to adverse effects of inflammation on endothelium, chronic steroid therapy and procoagulant effects of APLA.Lung:-
Many Patients are asymptomatic from low blood counts, so it is important for people with lupus to have periodic blood tests in order to detect any problems. Blood clots are more common in people with lupus. Clots often occur in the legs (DVT) and lungs (pulmonary embolus) and occasionally in the brain (stroke). Blood clots that develop in lupus Patients may be associated with the production of APL antibodies.
Mouth ulcers might occur and may/not b painful. Mesenteric Vasculitis is a serious complication => present with abd pian, bowel infarction/ perforation.
Classification Criteria for the Diagnosis of SLE by American Rheumatism Association (ARA): -
Any combination of 4 or more of 11 criteria, well-documented at any time during a patient's history, makes it likely that the patient has SLE (specificity and sensitivity are 95% and 75%, respectively).
Life-style modifications: -