Diffuse Dermal Angiomatosis of the Breast

Diffuse dermal angiomatosis is rare and usually considered a variant of reactive angioendotheliomatosis. It generally involves the extremities of patients with severe vascular disease and other comorbidities. Two patients with…Continue readingDiffuse Dermal Angiomatosis of the Breast

Targeted therapy

Targeted therapy is a type of cancer treatment that works differently to chemotherapy. Chemotherapy attacks all rapidly dividing cells in the body, but targeted therapy works by “targeting” those differences that…Continue readingTargeted therapy

Cancer treatment centres in Nepal

1.   B. P. Koirala Memorial Cancer Hospital (BPKMCH): BPKMCH is the first tertiary level cancer hospital in Nepal, which provides all types of cancer treatment services, such as surgical oncology,…Continue readingCancer treatment centres in Nepal

Treatment of breast cancer

Treatments are less invasive when breast cancer is detected at an early stage. Challenges for breast cancer treatment in Nepal include patient’s financial status (given the huge out-of-pocket expenditure), accessibility…Continue readingTreatment of breast cancer


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last minute endocrine revision s

Last Minute Endocrine Revision Study Notes

Last Minute Endocrine Revision Study Notes for the exam. This one point note is essential for the bachelor level and master exam which can be for the entrance exam or the final exam.

These are the medical study notes, USMLE study notes or MCI study notes or NMCLE study notes for the Exam preparation notes.

Last Minute Endocrine Revision Study Notes

1. diagnosis of diabetes mellitus Fasting BG>125 mg and postprandial >140mg, HbA1 >6.5%
2. Diabetes control is best monitored by HbA1C
3. GLP-1 agonist, Exenatide
4. Insulin resistant if he needs more than – 200
5. Seen in DKA, Dehydration, Abdominal pain/tenderness
6. in DKA, Leukocytosis, Pseudohyponatremia occurs, Acute gastric dilatation
7. most dangerous complication of DKA, Cerebral edema
8. plasma of osmolality, 290
9. Deficiency of which of the following vitamins can lead to lactic acidosis , B1
10. The most reliable indicator for diabetic nephropathy is , Urine albumin >30 mg per day in 3 consecutive samples
11. The earliest feature of diabetic nephropathy, Raise GFR
12. Third nerve palsy with normal pupillary reaction, Diabetes
13. The drug used for DM gastropathy, Erythromycin
14. The drug is not used in erectile dysfunction, Apomorphine, Yohimbine, PgE1
15. Life-threatening complications of diabetes mellitus are, Malignant otitis externa, Rhinocerebral mucormycosis, Emphysematous pyelonephritis
16. Weight loss may be seen in, Uremia, Pheochromocytoma, Adrenal insufficiency
17. parameter for Metabolic Syndrome (Syndrome X), Hypertriglyceridemia, Low HDL cholesterol, Hypertension
18. Hyperthyroidism following administration of supplemental iodine to subjects with endemic iodine deficiency goiter is known, Jod-Basedow effect
19. the best marker to diagnose hypothyroid is, TSH
20. Decreased Radioiodine uptake is, Subacute thyroiditis, Factitious thyroiditis
21. ischemic heart disease [IHD] is diagnosed having hypothyroidism. Which of the following would be a most appropriate line of management for, Start Levothyroxine at low dose
22. true about Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, Follicular destruction, Increase in lymphocytes, Oncocytic metaplasia, Orphan Annie eye nuclei
23. ‘Hurthle cells’ are seen, Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis
24. feature of de Quervain’s disease, ESR, Painful & associated with enlargements of the thyroid
25. common cause of hyperparathyroidism, Parathyroid adenoma
26. presentation of hyperparathyroidism is, Asymptomatic hypercalcemia
27. feature of hypercalcemia, Polyuria, Vomiting, Depression
28. Tufting of the terminal phalanges is seen in, Hyperparathyroidism
29. causes of hypercalcemia, Lithium therapy, Multiple myeloma, Vitamin A intoxication
30. true, Williams syndrome consists of precocious puberty, mental retardation & obesity
31. Hypercalcemia is seen in all, Sarcoidosis, Vitamin A toxicity, Phenytoin toxicity
32. Hypercalcemia is, Prolong immobilization,
33. Pseudohypoparathyroidism, ed PTH
34. Features of tumor lysis syndrome, Hyperuricemia, Hyperphosphatemia, Hyperkalemia
35. tumor lysis syndrome are, Hypocalcemia
36. Hypophosphatemia is seen in, Resolving phases of diabetic ketoacidosis, Respiratory alkalosis, Chronic alcoholism
37. Type I MEN involves, Pancreas, Pituitary, Parathyroid
38. associated with MEN 2, Pheochromocytoma, Medullary carcinoma thyroid, Parathyroid adenoma
39. features of MEN II b, Pheochromocytoma, Neuromas, Medullary ca thyroid
40. the most common cause of Cushing’s syndrome, Iatrogenic steroids
41. features of Cushing’s disease, Central obesity, Easy bruising , Glucose intolerance
42. Cushing’s disease is associated with, Increased ACTH and increased cortisol
43. earliest manifestation of Cushing’s syndrome, Loss of diurnal variation
44. Conn’s syndrome is most commonly associated with, Cortical adenoma
45. Conn’s syndrome is associated with, Hypertension, Muscle weakness, Hypokalemia
46. cause pituitary apoplexy, Diabetes mellitus, Sickle cell anemia, Hypertension
47. Octreotide is useful for, Insulinoma, Glucagonoma, Carcinoid tumor
48. brain tumors spread via CSF, Medulloblastoma
49. Heal pad thickness is increase in, Acromegaly
50. The commonest cause of increase heal pad thickness, Trauma
51. Hypoglycemia is seen in, Hepatoma
52. Hypercalcemia occurs in, Breast, Bladder, Head & Neck
53. SIADH occur in, Small cell lung cancer
54. To diagnose a case of diabetes, the fasting blood sugar should be, 126
55. Type 1 diabetes is associated with, DR4
56. hyperglycemia occurs, Cushing syndrome
57. Hypoglycemia is an important feature, Addison disease
58. DPP IV inhibitor, Sitagliptin
59. The drug which can be used in both type I and type II diabetes, Acarbose
60. DKA case is treated with insulin the serum sodium level, Rise
61. The most common type of diabetic neuropathy, Sensory neuropathy
62. condition can lead to hypothyroid, Hemochromatosis
63. the drug can lead to hypothyroid, Lithium
64. condition can lead to hypothyroid, Scleroderma
65. Non-pitting edema, Hypothyroid
66. Hung up reflex is seen, Hypothyroid
67. Which of the following is most commonly seen in hypothyroid, Raised LDL
68. Cyst in the bones are seen in, Hyperparathyroid
69. Edema feet is not a feature, Conn syndrome
70. Triad of pheochromocytoma includes Palpitation, Headache, Sweating
71. Profuse sweating is a feature, Pheochromocytoma
72. Desmopressin is used in the treatment, Cranial diabetic insipidus
73. Hyponatremia occurs in which of, Small cell lung carcinoma


Endocrine system anatomy and physiology | Endocrine system lecture  notes on youtube video

This endocrine system lecture explains the endocrine system anatomy and physiology and it also states about the structural anatomy of the endocrine system consist of ductless glands that secrete hormones.

This lecture explains about the chemical messengers called hormones secreted from the endocrine glands. Endocrine system anatomy and physiology lecture states the function of endocrine system and physiology of endocrine system by means of hormones biochemistry that regulates the body growth and metabolism.

This lecture also states the structure and function of major glands of the endocrine system like hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, pineal body, and the reproductive organs (ovaries and testes) and pancreas.


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