Skin vasoconstriction and temperature When the skin needs to
CONServe heat, the
blood vessels of the skin CONStrict.
When the skin is COld, the blood
vessels of the skin COnstrict.
Vitamin D: site of conversion Vitamin D is made in
Fluid compartments: volumes 12345:
12 liters of interstitial fluid
3 liters plasma volume and 30 liters inside cells
45liters total body water
Potassium: causes of potassium leaving cells A$$E$
Acidosis: H+ ions move in.
Starvation: catabolism of cells.
Stress: catabolism of cells (postoperative).
Exercise: catabolism of cells.
Sodium chloride lost: K+ replaces it and is then excreted.
Heart valves: placement of valves on standard heart anterior view
“Try before you Buy“: When read across the page, the tricuspid
valve comes before the bicuspid valve.
Also, the lunar valves are near the top (in the sky), like the moon.
Aldosterone: regulation of secretion from adrenal cortex
Renin-angiotensin m echanism
Na concentraton in blood
ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide)
LH vs FSH: function in male LH: Leydig cells
stimulated to produce testosterone.
FSH: Spermatogenesis stimulated.
Alkalosis vs. acidosis: directions of pH and HCO3 ROME:
· pH is high, PCO2 is down (Alkalosis).
· pH is low, PCO2 is up (Acidosis).
· pH is high, HCO3 is high (Alkalosis).
· pH is low, HCO3 is low (Acidosis).
Adrenal gland: functions ACTH:
Catabolism of proteins/ Carbohydrate metabolism
T cell immunomodulation
Hyper/ Hypotension (blood pressure control)
MAO isoenzyme form locations · MAO-A in:
Adrenergic peripheral structures
Alimentary mucosa [intestine]
· MAO-B in:
Carotid sinus vs. carotid body function carotid SinuS:
carotid bO2dy measures O2.
Hemoglobin and myoglobin: binding strengths, sites “ABC”
of glycosylated Hb (Hb1c):
· Glucose binds to Amino terminal of Beta Chain.
“HbF binds Forcefully”:
· HbF binds oxygen more forcefully than HbA, so Oxy-Hb dissociation curve shifts
Stored blood is SOS:
· Stored blood Hb binds to Oxygen Strongly because of
decrease in 2,3 BPG.
2,3 BPG binding site is BBC:
· BPG binds to Beta Chain of Hb.
Myoglobin binding strength is MOM:
· Myoglobin binds Oxygen More strongly than Hb.
Pepsin-producing cells “Chief of Pepsi-Cola”:
· Chief cells of stomach produce Pepsin.
Hb-oxygen dissociation curve shifts: effect, location Left
shift: causes Loading of O2 in Lungs.
Right shift: causes Release of O2 from Hb.
Rods vs. cone function RoD: Dim light.
Pituitary: anterior hypophysis hormones FLATPiG:
Heart valves: sequence of flow TRIPS BIAS:
Alternatively: “TRIPS, MI ASs!” (uses MItral instead of BIcuspid)
Adrenal cortex layers and products “Get your Facts
Right, Men are Glued to their Gonads”:
Intrinsic vs. extrinsic pathway tests “PeT PiTTbull”:
PeT: PT is for extrinsic pathway.
PiTTbull: PTT is for intrinsic pathway.
Compliance of lungs factors COMPLIANCE:
Collagen deposition (fibrosis)
Ossification of costal cartilages
Pulmonary venous congestion
Increased expanding pressure
Chest wall scarring
· All but L/A/E decrease compliance.
Diabetes Insipidous: diagnosing subtypes After a
Concentrated urine = Cranial.
No effect = Nephrogenic.
Progesterone: actions PROGESTE:
Produce cervical mucous
Relax uterine smooth muscle
Oxycotin sensitivity down
Gonadotropin [FSH, LH] secretions down
Endometrial spiral arteries and secretions up
Temperature up / Tit development
Excitability of myometrium down
Oxytocin-producing nucleus of hypothalamus Paraventricular
nucleus–> Parturition (childbirth is oxytocin’s most important role).
Temperature control: cerebral regions “High Power
Heating = Posterior hipothalamo [hypothalamus].
Anterior hipothalamo [hypothalamus] = Cooling.