Muscle spindle: origin of primary vs. secondary endings
“1from 1, 2 from 2“:
Primary ending is from Group Ia.
Secondary ending from Group II.
Neurotransmitters in Sleep
Serotonin (initiates sleep)
Dopamine (causes arousal from sleep, i.e., wakefulness))
Pituitary hormones FLAGTOP:
Follicle stimulating hormone
Thyroid stimulating hormone
Alternatively: GOAT FLAP with the second ‘A’ for Anti-diruetic
· Note: there is also melanocyte secreting homone and Lipotropin, but they are
not well understood.
Adrenal cortex layers and products “Go Find
Rex, Make Good Sex“:
· Respective products:
· Alternatively for layers: GFR (Glomerular Filtration Rate, convenient
since adrenal glands are atop kidney).
Closure sequence of Heart valves
“Many Things Are Possible”:
Balance organs Utricle and Saccule keep US
VO2 normal value is 250 mL/min “V02” is the numbers,
just need to rearrange the order.
V is roman numeral for 5, so rearrange to 2V0, or 250mL/min.
PGI2 vs. TxA2 coagulation function TxA2 Aggregates
PGI2 Inhibits aggregation.
· Note: full name of PGI2 is prostaglandin I2 or prostacyclin, full name of TxA2
is thromboxane A2.
Einthoven’s Triangle: organization Corners are at RA (right
arm), LA (left arm), LL (left leg).
Number of L’s at a corner tell how many + signs are at that corner [eg LL
Sum of number of L’s of any 2 corners tells the name of the lead [eg LL-LA
is lead III].
For reference axes, the negative angle hemisphere is on the half of the
triangle drawing that has all the negative signs; positive angle
hemisphere contains only positive signs.
Adrenal cortex layers and products “Great Attire
And Fast Cars Are Really Sexy Attributes”:
Granulosa secretes Aldosterone in response to Angiotensin
Fasiculata secretes Cortisol in response to ACTH.
Reticularis secretes Sex steroids in response to ACTH.
Adrenal cortex layers and products “Get My
Freakin’ Gun Right Away”:
Glomerulosa: Mineralcorticoid (aldosterone)
Fasiculata: Glucocorticoid (cortisol)
Heart electrical conduction pathway “If patient’s family are
all having Heart attacks, you must SAVe HIS KIN!”
SA node —>
AV node —>
His (bundle of) –>
Cochlea: inner vs. outer hair cell function “Outer
cells are Out of the brain. Inner cells are Into the
Outer hair cells are motor efferents to amplify signal.
Inner hair cells are sensory afferents that actually pick up the sound.
Nervous stimulus: the 4 ways to classify “A MILD
Heart: -tropic definitions Lusitropic: loose
is relaxed. Definition: relax heart.
Inotropic: when heart wall contracts, moves inward.
Definition: contract heart.
Chronotropic: ‘chrono-‘ means ‘time’. Defintion: heart rate (of SA node
Dromotropic: only one left, it must be conduction speed by default.
Osteoblast vs. osteoclast OsteoBlast Builds
OsteoClast Consumes bone.
Heart valves: closure sequence “Many Things
Mitral, Tricuspid, Aortic, Pulmonic
Oestrogen: functions OESTROGEN SUX:
Organ development (sex organs)
Endocrine: FSH and LH regulation
Secondary sex characteristics development
Tropic for pregnancy
Receptor synthesis (of progesterone, oestrogen, LH)
Osteoporosis decrease (inhibits bone reabsorption)
Granulosa cell development
Endocrine: increases prolactin secretion, but then blocks its effect
Sex drive increase
Uterine contractility increase
oXytocin sensitivity increase
Electrical conductivity of tissues “Be Careful
To Shock My Best Nerve”:
In order of least conductive to most conductive:
Prolactin and oxytocin: functions PROlactin
stimulates the mammary glands to PROduce milk.
Oxytocin stimulates the mammary glands to Ooze (release) milk.
Gut intrinsic innervation: myenteric plexus vs. submucosal plexus
function Myenteric: Motility.
Submucosal: Secretion and blood flow.
V/Q gradient in lung Infinity, a lung and a zero stack
V/Q is lowest at bottom, highest at top.
Prostaglandins: dilatation abilities Prospectors keep
Mineshaft 1: Patent ductus ateriosus.
Mineshaft 2: renal afferent arteriole dilatation.
Hyperthyroidism: signs and symptoms THYROIDISM:
Heart rate up
Oligomenorrhea & amenorrhea
Intolerance to heat
Musle wasting & weight loss