Physiology Mnemonics 1

Muscle spindle: origin of primary vs. secondary endings
1from 12 from 2“:
Primary ending is from Group Ia.
Secondary ending from Group II.
 
Neurotransmitters in Sleep
“SAND”
Serotonin (initiates sleep)
Acetylcholine (ACh)
Norepinephrine
Dopamine (causes arousal from sleep, i.e., wakefulness))
 
Glucagon: actions
‘ LKG2’
Lipolysis
Ketogenesis
Glycogenolysis
Gluconeogenesis
 
 
Pituitary hormones FLAGTOP:
Follicle stimulating hormone
Lutinizing hormone
Adrenocorticotropin hormone
Growth hormone
Thyroid stimulating hormone
Oxytocin
Prolactin
Alternatively: GOAT FLAP with the second ‘A’ for Anti-diruetic
homone/vasopressin
· Note: there is also melanocyte secreting homone and Lipotropin, but they are
not well understood.
 
 
Adrenal cortex layers and products “GFind 
R
ex, Make Good Sex“:
· Layers:
Glomerulosa
Fasiculata
Reticulata
· Respective products:
Mineralcorticoids
Glucocorticoids
Sex hormones
· Alternatively for layers: GFR (Glomerular Filtration Rate, convenient
since adrenal glands are atop kidney).
 
Closure sequence of Heart valves
“Many Things Are Possible”:
Mitral
Tricuspid
Aortic
Pulmonary
 
Balance organs Utricle and Saccule keep US
balanced.
 
VO2 normal value is 250 mL/min “V02” is the numbers,
just need to rearrange the order.
V is roman numeral for 5, so rearrange to 2V0, or 250mL/min.
 
 
PGI2 vs. TxA2 coagulation function TxAAggregates
platelets.
PGIInhibits aggregation.
· Note: full name of PGI2 is prostaglandin I2 or prostacyclin, full name of TxA2
is thromboxane A2.
 
 
Einthoven’s Triangle: organization Corners are at RA (right
arm), LA (left arm), LL (left leg).
Number of L’s at a corner tell how many + signs are at that corner [eg LL
is ++].
Sum of number of L’s of any 2 corners tells the name of the lead [eg LL-LA
is lead III].
For reference axes, the negative angle hemisphere is on the half of the
triangle drawing that has all the negative signspositive angle
hemisphere contains only positive signs.

Adrenal cortex layers and products “Great Attire
AnFast Cars Are Really SexAttributes”:
Granulosa secretes Aldosterone in response to Angiotensin
II.
Fasiculata secretes Cortisol in response to ACTH.
Reticularis secretes Sex steroids in response to ACTH.
 
 
Adrenal cortex layers and products “Get M
F
reakin’ Gun Right Away”:
Glomerulosa: Mineralcorticoid (aldosterone)
Fasiculata: Glucocorticoid (cortisol)
Reticularis: Androgens
 
 
Heart electrical conduction pathway “If patient’s family are
all having Heart attacks, you must SAVe HIS KIN!”
SA node —>
AV node —>
His (bundle of) –>
PurKINje fibers
 
 
 
Cochlea: inner vs. outer hair cell function “Outer
cells are Out of the brain. Inner cells are Into the
brain”:
Outer hair cells are motor efferents to amplify signal.
Inner hair cells are sensory afferents that actually pick up the sound.
 
 
Nervous stimulus: the 4 ways to classify “A MILD
stimulus”:
Modality
Intensity
Location
Duration
 
 
Heart: -tropic definitions Lusitropic: loose
is relaxed. Definition: relax heart.
Inotropic: when heart wall contracts, moves inward.
Definition: contract heart.
Chronotropic: ‘chrono-‘ means ‘time’. Defintion: heart rate (of SA node
impulses).
Dromotropic: only one left, it must be conduction speed by default.
 
 
 
Osteoblast vs. osteoclast OsteoBlast Builds
bone.
OsteoClast Consumes bone.
 
 
Heart valves: closure sequence “Many Things 
A
re Possible”:
Mitral, Tricuspid, Aortic, Pulmonic
 
 
Oestrogen: functions OESTROGEN SUX:
Organ development (sex organs)
Endocrine: FSH and LH regulation
Secondary sex characteristics development
Tropic for pregnancy
Receptor synthesis (of progesterone, oestrogen, LH)
Osteoporosis decrease (inhibits bone reabsorption)
Granulosa cell development
Endocrine: increases prolactin secretion, but then blocks its effect
Nipple development
Sex drive increase
Uterine contractility increase
oXytocin sensitivity increase
 
 
Electrical conductivity of tissues “BCareful
TShock MBest Nerve”:
In order of least conductive to most conductive:
Bones
Cartilage
Tendon
Skin
Muscle
Blood
Nerve
 
 
Prolactin and oxytocin: functions PROlactin
stimulates the mammary glands to PROduce milk.
Oxytocin stimulates the mammary glands to Ooze (release) milk.
 
 
Gut intrinsic innervation: myenteric plexus vs. submucosal plexus
function
 Myenteric: Motility.
Submucosal: Secretion and blood flow.
 
 
V/Q gradient in lung Infinity, a lung and a zero stack
nicely.
V/Q is lowest at bottom, highest at top.
 
 
Prostaglandins: dilatation abilities Prospectors keep
mineshafts open:
Mineshaft 1: Patent ductus ateriosus.
Mineshaft 2: renal afferent arteriole dilatation.
 
 
Hyperthyroidism: signs and symptoms THYROIDISM:
Tremor
Heart rate up
Yawning [fatigability]
Restlessness
Oligomenorrhea & amenorrhea
Intolerance to heat
Diarrhea
Irritability
Sweating
Musle wasting & weight loss