Types of Hanging
Atypical-Knot at any place other than occiput
Complete-Fully suspended in air
Partial-Feet touching the ground
Garroting- Ligature strangulation from behind
Mugging- By holding neck in the bend of elbow
Force required to obstuct trachea-15kg
Fresh water and salt water drowning
Fresh water drowning-Hemodilution,hyponatremia,Hyperkalemia
Salt water drowning-Pulmonary edema,hemoconcentration
Hydrocution- No specific postmortem finding
Water in sphenoidal air sinus is a very good sign in drowning.
Rule of Hasse
To find intrauterine age of fetus
Upto 5 months square root of length
After 5 months multiply by 5.
Viability attained by 7 months/210 days
Ossification center in calcaneum-5 months
Ossification center in talus-7 months
Ossification center in cuboid-9 months
Strenum- 5 ossification centers(66779) if atleast 3 is present, fetus is viable.
Testamentary capacity-Ability to make a will
Rate of decomposition in soil water and air- 1:2:8
“According to an old rule of thumb (Casper’s dictum) one week of
putrefaction in air is equivalent to two weeks in water, which is equivalent to eight
weeks buried in soil, given the same environmental temperature”.
Criminal responsibility of insane
First permanent tooth to erupt-First molar
Thanatology-Science of death
Sommer’s movement-Due to shortening and stiffening of muscles in rigor mortis.
Proximal 2 cm of anterior descending branch-Commonest site of MI
Rigor mortis is due to-reduction of ATP
Marbling-Branching pattern of veins after death-Can be seen by 36 hours
Clostridium welchii-Adipocere, foamy liver.
Evidence of recent sex in male-Lugol’s iodine test.
Seminal stains-Florence,acid phosphatase test,Barberio test
Blood stains-Takayama test
Blood grp of old blood stain-Absorption elution technique
Christmas Y stain-Detects sperm in vaginal mucosa.
Nystens Law-Spread of rigor mortis-proximo distally.
- Ischiopubic index
- Sacral index
- Corporobasal index(Diameter of sacrum)
- Medullary index(Bone)
- Brachial index(radius/humerus)
- Crural index(tibia/femur)
- Humerofemoral index
- Cephalic index
- Costochondral junction
- Pubic symphisis
- Gustafson’s method
Medullary index of hair-Species determination
Humans have narrow medulla-type 7.