These are handy point for the reviewing before exam . These points will help the medical student fot he exam . especially entrance exam and other mcq solving exams. These points are useful for different entrance exams like USMLE exam , Post graduation exam , FCPS exam, NMCLE Exams. Handy points to be review before Exam
Handy points to be review before Exam listed points
• Trisomy 21 = Down syndrome. (Age for Drinking is 21)
• Trisomy 13 = Patau syndrome.(Age for Puberty in females is 13)
• Trisomy 18 = Edward syndrome.(Age for voting in Election is 18)
• Increased alpha feto protein plus increased albumin = Anencephaly.
• Vitamin A prevents squamous cell carcinoma.
• Right border of heart is made by right atrium.
• Trephine biopsy Indicates = aplastic anemia > ALL.
• In anesthesia halothane is always given with Nitric oxide.
• Most diagnostic test for TB = PCR > AFB > Caseous.
• Down syndrome occurs 1/100.
• Common genital vesicle is herpes simplex virus.
• Inferior orbital fissure contents are maxillary nerve and its zygomatic branch, inferior ophthalmic vein and sympathetic nerves and this fissure communicates with pterygo palatine fossa.
• Superior orbital fissure communicates with middle cranial fossa and it transmits lacrimal nerve, frontal nerve, trochlear nerve, oculomotor nerve, abducent nerve, nasociliary nerve and superior ophthalmic vein.
• Thyroid is the only endocrine gland that stores its secretions outside the cell.
• Sensations from the tip of nose are carried by ophthalmic division of trigeminal nerve.
• Tensor tympani is supplied by mandibular division of trigeminal nerve.
• Stapedius is supplied by facial nerve.
• Nucleus raphe synthesize serotonin.
• Locus Ceruleus = Nor epinephrine.
• At term CRL = 36 cm and CHL = 50 cm.
• CRL used b/w 7 – 14 weeks.
• BPD is used 16 – 30 weeks.
• Sperm life in genital tract is 24 to 48 hours.
• 2nd most common cause of osteoporosis in old age is Cushing syndrome.
• Prenatal chromosome is detected at 14 -18 weeks.
• Bronchial asthma plus hypertensive patient > Best drug Verapamil.
• Aphasia and facial nerve palsy > damage to middle meningeal artery.
• Diabetic plus hypertensive patient > Best drug Captopril.
• Inferior wall MI > Right marginal artery block.
• Epidermis of partoid gland is derived from ectoderm.
• To kill spores of surgical instrument > moist heat at 160 C for 1 hr.
• Food poisoning caused by Staph. Aureus is through entertoxin.
• Least positive value for Widal is 1:120.
• Trigeminal ganglion is completely covered by dura.
• Tactile sensation is carried by dorsal white column to medial leminiscus.
• Anti HBcAg = positive window period.
• MAP = diastolic +1/3 pulse pressure.
• Insulin secretion is inhibited by beta blocker.
• Highest triglyceride = VLDL.
• Highest cholesterol = LDL.
• Highest lipoprotein = HDL.
• Which is not a phospholipid = Plasmalogen.
• Best way to check bone density is the scan of spine.
• End break down of glucose is pyruvate.
• In pre eclamptic patient hydralazine is the drug of choice before surgery.
• In down syndrome: Triple test (alpha feto protein is decreased, b-HCG is increased and estriol is decreased) and if we add up inhibin which is increased then it will be called as Quadruple test.
• Identification of turner syndrome is by barr bodies.
• PLAP (Placental Alkaline Phosphatase) is a tumor marker in seminoma and ovarian carcinoma.
• Tubo ovarian abscess by IUCD – most causative agent is Actinomycosis.
• Major intracellular buffer is Hb.
• DVT more common in popliteal vein but pulmonary embolism is through femoral veins.
• Investigation of DIC D-dimers, FDPs, Platelet count and PT (except clotting time).
• Referred pain: Cervix S2-S3 <> Ovary -T10-T11 <> Testis -T10 <> Umbilicus -T10 <> Kidney T12-L2.
• Trimethoprim (co-trimoxazole ) side effect > megaloblastic anemia plus leukopenia.
• Sacrospinous ligament does NOT contribute in wall of perineum.
• Lesser omentum connects with duodenum.
• Sphincteric urethra is known as external urethral sphincter and is supplied by pudendal nerves where as internal os is supplied by inferior hypo gastric plexus.
• Nerve supply of rectum is hypogastric plexus.
• Uterine tube is 10 cm long.
• Urachal cyst is the remanant of allantois.
• Thyroid gland is derived from endoderm.
• Thymus and inferior parathyroid develops from 3rd branchial pouch.
• Superior para thyroid is developed from 4th brachial pouch.
• Diaphragmatic hernia occurs due to absence of pleuro peritoneal membrane.
• Superior thyroid artery is related to external laryngeal nerve which supplies posterior cricothyroid muscle of larynx and damage to it will cause hoarseness.
• Inferior thyroid artery is also related to recurrent laryngeal nerve which runs b/w trachea and esophagus and its most common injury is in thyroidectomy.
• In papillary carcinoma of thyroid > it occurs in young age and involves cervical lymph nodes.
• Tracheostomy is done at 2nd tracheal ring by pulling the isthmus inferiorly.
• Nonfunctional nodule or cold nodule has high chances of malignant transformation.
• Erythropoiesis in middle trimester is in the liver.
• Right coronary artery supplies SA node.
• Levator ani muscle is supplied by L2, L3 & L4.
• Defect in Bulbus Cordis results in VSD, hypertrophy of Right ventricle, congenital cyanosis, transposition of great vessels (but not ASD).
Endocardial cushion is important for the formation of four chambers of heart.
• Thirst is least stimulated by blood pressure.
• Important hormone involved in gluconeogenesis is Cortisol.
• Apoptosis is inhibited by bcl-2 inhibition.
• Low serum complement in SLE.
C3b & IgG are Opsonins & C5a is chemotactic protein.
• Urea is an important indicator for muscle protein loss.
ESR is decreased when albumin is increased.
• Drug which does not cause gynecomastia is Androgen & drugs which cause gynecomastia are Digoxin, Girsoefulvin, Cimetidine, Androgens, Spironolactone and Ketoconazole.
Tx of hirstuism is Cyproterone Acetate.
• Pyruvic acid is intermediate from glucose to acetyl coA.
Epinephrine .nor epinephrine & dopamine are derived from tyrosine.
End product of Purine is Uric acid.
RBCs have glycolytic enzyme activity.
End product of glucose gives 2 Pyruvate.
Alanine should be taken in diet.
• Cisplatin is more notorious to cause renal toxicity.
• Dysplasia is seen in epithelia.
• MRNA has a codon.
• HSV is associated with vulvar papules.
• Wart on the lateral wall of introitus it is caused by HPV.
Plaque like lesion on posterior superior wall of vagina is squamous cell carcinoma.
• German Measles causes Congenital Cataract.
Anterior abdominal wall swelling with umbilical cord attached to it in a new born baby is known as Omphalocele.
• Beta-lactam acts on the Cell Wall.
• Streptomycin causes ototoxity.
Isoniazid > Hepatotoxicity.
Pyrazinamide > Gout.
Rifampicin > red color of body secretions.
• Opportunistic organism > E. Coli.
Pseudomembranous colitis is caused by C. difficile.
Most common organism involved in gynecological & abdominal procedures is E.coli.
• Vulvular itching = Chlamydia; fish like smell; Bacterial Vaginosis.
• Vitamin K dependent: Factors 2, 7,9,10, Protein C, Protein S, Fibrinogen and Prothrombin.
Intrinsic and Extrinsic pathways of coagulation converge at factor 10.
• Threonine does not contain Sulfa group.
• Autosomal dominant is hereditary Spherocytosis & Poly cystic kidney disease.
• Lens opacity causing drugs >Chlorpromazine, Amidarone, Tamoxifen, Gold & Iron toxicity.
Drugs causing corneal opacity > Amiodarone, Chloroquine, Mepacrine & Copper.
• Ribosome have purple color on Eosin & Methylene blue staining
High energy content > Starch.
High energy compound > ATP
Antidote of warfarin is vitamin K but if action is more quickly required then FFP.
• Olfactory cells are the only neurons in the body that regenerates.
• Projectile vomiting greenish in color means bilious vomiting so it is due to duodenal atresia but if projectile vomiting non bilious then it is hypertrophic pyloric stenosis.
• Pulmonary trunk relation with the bronchus at the hilum of the lung-mnemonic is RALSR- Right Anterior & Left Superior.
• Rhino sinusitis is caused by Strep Pneumonia, H. Influenza, M Catarrahalis.
• Homan’s sign is present in DVT in which if you dorsiflex the foot there will be pain in calf muscles.
• Classic triad of Pulmonary Embolism: –
• Nitrogen bubbled precipitator in ascending divers and can be treated with hyperbaric oxygen.
• CT pulmonary angiography is the best test to detect Pulmonary Embolism.
• The most common infectious agent transmitted by blood transfusion is cytomegalovirus (CMV), which is present in donor lymphocytes.
• Before blood is transfused into newborns or patients with T-cell deficiencies, it must be irradiated to kill donor lymphocytes. This prevents the patient from developing a graft-versus-host reaction or a CMV infection.
• Yersinia enterocolitica, a pathogen that thrives on iron, is the most common contaminant of stored blood.
• Iron is stored in bone macrophages.
• Structures passing thru superior orbital fissure….
• Cranial Nerve Foramina
CN I passes through > cribriform plate
CN II > optic canal
CN III, IV, VI (ophthalmic division), VI > superior orbital fissure
(Maxillary div > foramen rotundum, mandibular div > foramen ovale)
CN VII, VIII > internal acoustic meatus
CN IX, X, XI(cranial root) > Jugular foramen (accessory nerve spinal root >foramen magnum)
CN XII > hypoglossal canal.