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Common Clinical Signs and Symptoms for Exam revision notes

Common Clinical Signs and Symptoms for Exam revision notes

  • Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB)à low-grade afternoon fever.
  • Pneumoniaà rust-colored sputum.
  • Asthma à wheezing on expiration.
  • Emphysema – barrel chest.
  • Kawasaki Syndrome – strawberry tongue.
  • Pernicious Anemia – red beefy tongue.
  • Down syndrome- protruding tongue.
  • Cholera – rice-watery stool and washer
  • woman hands (wrinkled hands from dehydration).
  • Malaria – stepladder like fever with chills.
  • Typhoid – rose spots in the abdomen.
  • Dengue – fever,rash, and headache. Positive Herman sign.
  • Diphtheria – pseudomembrane formation.
  • Measles- Koplik spots (clustered white lesions on buccal mucosa).
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus- butterfly rash.
  • Leprosy- leonine facies (thickened folded facial skin).
  • Bulimia- chipmunk facies (parotid glandswelling).
  • Appendicitis rebound tenderness at McBurney s point.
  • Rovsing sign (palpation of LLQ elicits pain in RLQ).
  •  Psoas sign (pain from flexing the thigh to the hip).
  • Meningitis
  • Kernig sign (stiffness of hamstrings causing inability to straighten the leg
  • when the hip is flexed to 90 degrees),
  • Brudzinski sign (forced flexion of the neck elicits a reflex flexion of the hips).
  • Tetany hypocalcemia, [+] Trousseau sign; Chvostek sign.
  • Tetanus  Risus sardonicus or rictus grin.
  • Pancreatitis – Cullen sign (ecchymosis of the umbilicus), Grey Turner sign (bruising of the flank).
  • Pyloric Stenosis – olive like mass.
  • Patent Ductus Arteriosus- washing machine like murmur.
  • Addison s disease- bronze like skin pigmentation.
  • Cushing s syndrome moon face appearance and buffalo hump.
  • Grave s Disease (Hyperthyroidism) Exophthalmos(bulging of the eye out of the orbit).
  • Intussusception Sausage-shaped mass.
  • Multiple Sclerosis Charcot Triad: nystagmus, intention tremor, and dysarthria.
  • Myasthenia Gravis – descending muscle weakness, ptosis (drooping of eyelids).
  • Guillain-Barre Syndrome – ascending muscles weakness.
  • Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)-Homan Sign.
  • Angina — crushing, stabbing pain relieved by NTG.
  • Myocardial Infarction (MI)- crushing, stabbing pain radiating to left shoulder, neck, and arms.
  • Unrelieved by NTG.
  • Parkinson s disease- pill-rolling tremors.
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection- Owl eye appearance of cells (huge nucleus in cells).
  • Glaucoma- tunnel vision.
  • Retinal Detachment – flashes of light, shadow with curtain across vision.
  • Basilar Skull Fracture – Raccoon eyes (periorbital ecchymosis) and Battle sign (mastoid ecchymosis).
  • Burgers Disease -intermittent claudication (pain at buttocks or legs from poor circulation resulting in impaired walking).
  • Diabetic Ketoacidosis – acetone breathe.
  • Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH) -proteinuria, hypertension, edema.
  • Diabetes Mellitus-polydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria.
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) – heartburn.
  • Hirschsprung s Disease (Toxic Megacolon) – ribbon-like stool.
  • Sexual Transmitted Infections:
  • Herpes Simplex Type II painful vesicles on genitalia
  • Genital Warts warts 1-2 mm in diameter.
  • Syphilis painless chancres.
  • Chancroid painful chancres.
  • Gonorrhea-green, creamy discharges and painful urination.
  • Chlamydia- milky discharge and painful urination.
  • Candidiasis- white cheesy odorless vaginal discharges.
  • Trichomoniasis- yellow, itchy, frothy, and foulsmelling vaginal discharges.

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