SOME COMMON ABNORMALITIES IN PERIPHERAL BLOOD SMEAR EXAMINATION
Variation in the size of RBC seen in Fe deficiency anemia, megaloblastic anemia, and sideroblastic anemia
Variation in the shape of RBC, seen in Fe deficiency anemia, thalassemia, and sideroblastic anemia.
RBC size less than normal (< 75 fL), seen in Fe deficiency anemia, thalassemia, and sideroblastic anemia
size of RBC> 100 fL seen in vitamin B12 and also folic acid deficiency
RBC with less Hb, the increased central pallor is seen in Iron deficiency anemia, thalassemia, sideroblastic anemia
- Basophilic stippling or punctate basophilia
Presence of scattered deep blue dots in the cytoplasm of RBC with Romanowsky staining, seen in pathologically damaged young red cells, severe anemia β thalassemia, and chronic lead poisoning.
- Target cells—Flat red cells with a central mass of Hb (dense area) surrounded by a ring of pallor (pale area) and an outer ring of Hb (dense area), seen in chronic liver diseases, hyposplenism, and hemoglobinopathies.
- Howell-Jolly bodies—seen in non-functioning or absent spleen and megaloblastic anemia.
- Heinz’s bodies (Ehrlich’s bodies)—formed from denatured, aggregated hemoglobin, seen in thalassemia, hemolytic anemia due to G6PD deficiency, asplenia, and chronic liver disase.
- Burn cells—RBC showing regularly placed spicules, seen in uremia.
- Schistocytes—they are fragmented RBCs seen in intravascular bemolysis.
- Spherocytes—small, densely packed RBCs with loss of central pallor, seen in hereditary spherocytosis and immunohemolytic anemias.