Pathology Mnemonics for study part 3

Pathology mnemonics for study part3 in easy ways
list of mnemonics here
 
 
Edwards’ syndrome: characteristics EDWARDS:
Eighteen (trisomy)
Digit overlapping flexion
Wide head
Absent intellect (mentally retarded)
Rocker-bottom feet
Diseased heart
Small lower jaw
Fragile X syndrome: features FEMALES
FMR1 gene
Exhibits anticpation
Macro-orchidism
Autism
Long face with large jaw
Everted eyes
Second most common casue of genetic mental retardation
Achalasia: 1 possible cause, 1 treatment aCHAlasia:
1 possible cause: CHAgas’ disease
1 treatment: Ca++ CHAnnel blockers
Anemia: TIBC finding to differentiate iron deficiency vs. chronic
disease
 TIBC levels at the:
Top=Iron deficiency.
Bottom=Chronic disease.
Colon cancer: risk factors HULA:
Heridity/ Heriditary diseases
Ulcerative colitis
Low fibre, high fat diet
Adenomatous polyps
COPD: blue bloater vs. pink puffer diseases emPhysema
has letter P (and not B) so Pink Puffer.
chronic Bronchitis has letter B (and not P) so Blue Bloater.
Macrocytic anaemia: differential FAT RBC:
Fetus (pregnancy)
Alcohol
Thyroid disease(ie hypothyroidism)
Reticulocytosis
B12 and folate deficiency
Cirrhosis and chronic liver disease
MI: post-MI complications ACT RAPID:
Arrhythmias (SVT, VT, VF)
Congestive cardiac failure
Tamponade/ Thromboembolic disorders
Rupture (ventricle, septum, papillary muscle)
Aneurysm (ventricle)
Pericarditis
Infaction (a second one)
Death/ Dressler’s syndrome
Hypersplenism: criteria “Hyper Splenism Ravages
Cells”:
Hypercellular or normal marrow
Splenomegaly
Response to splenectomy
Cytopenias
Whipple’s disease: full features WHIPPLES:
Weight loss
Hyperpigmentation of skin
Infection with tropheryma whippelii
PAS positive granules in macrophage
Polyarthritis
Lymphadenopathy
Enteric involvement
Steatorrhea
Pick’s disease: features PICK:
Progressive degeneration of neurons
Intracytoplasmic Pick bodies
Cortical atrophy
Knife edge gyri
Alzheimer’s disease (AD): associations, findings AD:
· Associations:
Aluminum toxicity
Acetylcholine deficiencies
Amyloid B
Apolipoprotein gene E
Altered nucleus basalis of Meynert
Down’s
· Findings:
Actin inclusions (Hirano bodies)
Atrophy of brain
Amyloid plaques
Aphasia, Apraxia, Agitation
DNA-coiled tangles
Dementia, Disoriented, Depressed
Osteomalacia: features “Vit-D deficiency in ADULT“:
Acetabuli protrusio
Decresed bone density
Under mineralization of osteoid
Looser’s zone (pseudofracture)
Triradiate pelvis (females)
Anemia (normocytic): causes ABCD:
Acute blood loss
Bone marrow failure
Chronic disease
Destruction (hemolysis)
Phaeochromocytoma: diagnositc rule · Rule of 10’s:
10% ectopic
10% multiple
10% malignant
Hematuria: urethral causes NUTS:
Neoplasm
Urethritis
Tumour
Stone
CREST sydrome: components CREST:
Calcinosis
Raynaud’s phenomena
Esophageal dysmotility
Sclerodactyly
Telangectasia
TTP: clinical features Thrombosis and thrombocytopenia 
PARTNER
 together:
Platelet count low
Anemia (microangiopathic hemolytic)
Renal failure
Temperature rise
Neurological deficits
ERadmission (as it is an emergency)
Pancreatitis: causes BAD S#!T:
Biliary: gallstones, 1% of ERCP patients
Alcoholism/ Azotemia
Drugs
Scorpion bite/ Sea anenome/ SLE
Hyperlipidemia/ Hypercalcemia
Idiopathic/ Infectious (mumps, coxsackie, salmonella, ascariasis)
Tumor/ Trauma
· The drugs are: penacillamine, furosemide, thiazides, ethacrynic acid,
steroids, sulfas, ace inhibitors, N-SAIDs, erythromycin, estrogen.
Fragile-X syndrome: features DSM-4:
Discontinued chromosome staining
Shows anticipation
Male (male more affected)
Mental retardation (2nd most common genetic cause)
Macrognathia
Macroorchidism
Endometrial carcinoma: risk factors HONDA:
Hypertension
Obesity
Nulliparity
Diabetes
Age (increased)
Kawasaki’s disease: features FEAR ME:
Fever
Eye: perilimbic sparing conjunctival injection
Adenopathy: usually cervical
Rash
Mouth: red lips
Extremities: red hands and feet
· Disease to be feared because of risk of coronary aneurysms.
Pheochromocytoma: common symptoms 5 P’s:
Paroxysmal rise in BP
Palpitations
Perspiration
Pain in abdomen
PMV in urine
IBD: extraintestinal manifestations “Left intestine to sail
the SEAS of the rest of the body”:
Skin manifestations: erythema nodosum, pyoderma gangrenosum
Eye inflammation: iritis, episcleritis
Arthritis
Sclerosing cholangitis
MI: complications “LEAP on the MAP“:
LVF
Embolism (systemic)
Aneurysm (ventricular)
Progressive infarction
Myocardial rupture
Arrhythmia
Pericarditis
Portal hypertension: features ABCDE:
Ascites
Bleeding (haematemesis, piles)
Caput medusae
Diminished liver
Enlarged spleen
Alzheimer’s disease: features RONALD (Ronald Reagan,
a famous victim):
Reduction of Ach
Old age
Neurofibrillary tangles
Atrophy of cerebral cortex (diffuse)
Language impairment
Dementia (MC in elderly)/ Down’s syndrome
Gout: major features GOUT:
Great toe
One joint (75% monoarticular)
Uric acid increased (hence urolithiasis)
Tophi
Seronegative spondyloarthopathy: diseases RAPE:
Reiter’s syndrome
Ankylosing spondylitis
Psoriatic arthitis
Enteropathic arthitis (IBD)
Protein C, Protein S: function C and S are:
Clot
Stoppers
· These proteins inhibit coagulation.
Melanoma vs. basal cell, squamous cell carcinoma: metastatic ability
MElanoma is more likely to
MEtastasize.
· Basal and squamous hardly ever metastasize.
Hepatocellular carcinoma: aetiology, features ABC:
Aetiology:
Aflatoxins
Hep B
Cirrhosis
· Features:
AFP increased (classic marker)
Bile-producing (DDx from cholangiocarcinoma)
Commonest primary liver tumor
Goitre: differential GOITRE:
Goitrogens
Onset of puberty
Iodine deficiency
Thyrotoxicosis/ Tumor/ Thyroiditis [Hashimoto’s]
Reproduction [pregnancy]
Enzyme deficiencies
Renal failure (chronic): consequences ABCDEFG:
Anemia
-due to less EPO
Bone alterations
-osteomalacia
-osteoporosis
-von Recklinghausen
Cardiopulmonary
-atherosclerosis
-CHF
-hypertension
-pericarditis
D vitamin loss
Electrolyte imbalance
-sodium loss/gain
-metabolic acidosis
-hyperkalemia
Feverous infections
-due to leukocyte abnormalities and dialysis hazards
GI disturbances
-haemorrhagic gastritis
-peptic ulcer disease
-intractable hiccups

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