One of the most common breaking of bone after 50 years is due to Osteoporosis in old age . Over time or age there will be loss of bone mass which weakens or deteriorate leading to brittle and fragile bone . Fragility makes them more likely to break. This breaking of bone due to osteoporosis or porous bone is one in two women and one in five men.
Signs of osteoporosis include frequent broken bones or fractures of the wrist or hip, low back pain, or a hunched back. You may also get shorter over time because osteoporosis can cause your vertebrae (the bones in your spine) to collapse. These are called compression fractures and can cause severe back pain. These problems tend to occur after a lot of bone calcium has already been lost.
What are Components of Bone?
To know the Bone Density we should know about the components of Bone . Basically bone is composed of
- Organic Matrix(10%), consisting of protein collagen
- Bone Mineral Components(65%),
- insoluble salt of calcium and phosphorus ,
- small amounts of magnesium, sodium and bicarbonate, and
- water. Water is of 25 Percent .
What is Bone Density ?
To know why Women are More likely to develop Osteoporosis then Men we should know about the bone denisity . Bone density is amount of bone Minerals in Bone Tissue . Bone mineral component is composed of hydroxyapatite, which is an insoluble salt of calcium and phosphorus. About 65% of adult bone mass is hydroxyapatite.
- Until about age 25, the density of bone increases.
- From about age 25 to age 50, bone density tends to stay stable with equal amounts of bone formation and bone breakdown.
- But once the bone mass has peaked—at around 35 years of age, all the adult start to lose it .
- After age 50, bone breakdown (resorption) outpaces bone formation and bone loss often accelerates, particularly at the time of menopause.
Why women more likely to develop osteoporosis then Men?
Women are more likely to develop osteoporosis than men due to several factors.
- Women have less bone mass than men. They tend to live longer so take in less calcium.
- Moreover the female need estrogen hormone to keep their bones strong. In the same way if men live long enough, they are also at risk of getting osteoporosis later in life.
- Menopause is one of the leading cause in bone loss . Once there is menopause the level of estrogen levels fall. leading to low bone mass
- Also if the ovaries are removed during the surgery then estrogen are not made and faster loss of bone mass occur
A bone densitometry test (DXA or DEXA scan) measures your bone mineral density (BMD). Your bone density is then compared to the average BMD of an adult of your sex and race at the age of peak bone mass (approximately age 25 to 30). The result is your T score.
- A T score of -1 to +1 is considered normal bone density.
- A T score of -1 to -2.5 indicates osteopenia (low bone density).
- A T score of -2.5 or lower is bone density low enough to be categorized as osteoporosis.
Who can get Osteoporosis ( Risk factors) : To Know Women are More likely to develop Osteoporosis then Men
- • Early menopause (before age 45)
• Family history of osteoporosis
• Surgery to remove ovaries before menopause
• Fair skin (Caucasian or Asian race)
• Not getting enough calcium in your food
• Sedentary lifestyle (not getting enough exercise)
• Smoking or tobacco use
• Excessive alcohol intake (more than three drinks a day)
• Excessive caffeine intake
• Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa
• Thin body and small bone frame
• Hyperthyroidism, either from an overactive thyroid or from taking too much medicine to treat hypothyroidism
• Long-term use of corticosteroids, which are medicines prescribed to treat inflammation, pain, and chronic conditions such as asthma and rheumatoid arthritis
How to make Bone Strong or Prevent from Osteoporosis
Keeping our bones strong is a challenging goal at any age . Following preventive mesasue can make your bone strong. Making the adequate calcium level in bone which can be done by
- Regular Exercise, Walking, dancing, aerobics class, weight training
- Eat a well-balanced diet with at least 1200 mg of calcium a day
- Quit smoking; smoking makes osteoporosis worse
- Cut back on caffeine and alcohol.
- Medicine Therapy to treat Osteoporosis
How much calcium do I need?
Before menopause, you need about 1000 mg of calcium per day.
After menopause, you need at least 1200 mg of calcium per day.
It’s usually best to try to get calcium from food. Non-fat and low-fat dairy products are good sources of calcium. Other sources of calcium include dried beans, pink salmon, spinach, and broccoli. About 300 mg of calcium are in each of the following: 1 cup of non-fat or low-fat yogurt, 1 1/2 cups of white beans, 5 ounces of salmon, 1/2 cup of spinach, or 2 cups of broccoli.
Getting enough vitamin D helps with calcium absorption and incorporation into your bones. The current recommendation is 600 IU of vitamin D per day through age 70 and 800 IU per day after age 70,. It’s difficult getting all of that from food every day, so you may need a vitamin D supplement to reach these goals.
calcium from food or supplements include
- low-fat or fat-free milk or yogurt (300 mg per cup)
- greens, such as kale (100 mg in 1 cup cooked kale)
- tofu that uses calcium for firmness (253 mg per half cup)
- beans (81 mg in a half cup of white beans, about 40 mg in a half cup of pinto beans, 23 mg in a half cup of black beans)
- calcium-fortified foods, like breakfast cereals and orange juice (up to 1,000 mg per serving)
Medicines therapy to Treat Osteoporosis
- Parathyroid hormone