List of Pathology Mnemonics collected from different websites Pulmonary fibrosis: differential of both upper and lower lobes BREAST SCAR: ...
List of Pathology Mnemonics collected from different websites
Pulmonary fibrosis: differential of both upper and lower lobesBREAST SCAR:
· Upper lobe:
Extrinsic allergic alveolitis
· Lower lobe:
Cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis
Gout vs. pseudogout: crystal lab findingsPseduogout
· Gout therefore is the negative needle shaped crystals.
· Also, gout classically strikes great Toe, and its hallmark is Tophi.
Pulmonary embolism: risk factors 7 H's:
Hereditary (eg factor V Leyden, protein C or S deficiency)
History (previous DVT or PE)
Hypomobility (fracture, CVA, severe illness, obesity, long trip)
Hypovolaemia (nephrotic syndrome, dehydration)
Hypercoagulability (smoking, malignancy)
Hormones (oestrogens [esp. in OCP], puerperium)
APKD: signs, complications, accelerators 11 B's:
Bilateral pain [vs. stones, which are usually unilateral pain]
Blood pressure up
Bicuspid valve [prolapse and other problems]
Blood pressure high
Barter's syndrome: pathogenesis, major sign Barter: "In
exchange for giving away Na+,K+,Cl-, you can drop the blood pressure".
Thyrotoxicosis syndrome: signs and symptoms "APenny
For Every Symptom That Hyperthyroidism Will
Make Grossly Evident":
Palpitations/ Pulse rapid
Weight loss with good appetite
Muscular weakness/ Menstrual changes
Peptic ulcer: associated causative factorsSHAZAM:
MEN type I
· These may work with H. pylori to promote ulceration, or may act alone.
Carcinoid syndrome: componentsCARCinoid:
Right sided valvular heart lesions
Cramping and diarrhea
Anemia causes (simplified)ANEMIA:
Anemia of chronic disease
No folate or B12
Marrow failure & hemaglobinopathies
Acute & chronic blood loss
Leydig cell tumors
Sertoli cell tumors
Pick's disease: location, action, epidemiology · See figure.
Pick axes are Picking away at the old woman's cerebral cortex,
causing cortical atrophy.
2 pick axes on her brain: frontal lobe and anterior 1/3 of temporal.
An old woman, since epidemiology is elderly & more common in women.
Multiple sclerosis (MS): pathologyMS attacks the
Myelin Sheath, resulting in plaques.
Nasopharyngeal malignant cancersNASOPharyngeal:
Squamous cell carcinoma
Acute ischemia: signs [especially limbs] 6 P's:
Hodgkin's lymphoma classificationA: Asymptomatic
Lichen planus characteristicsPlanus has 4 P's:
Hypertension: secondary hypertension causesCHAPS:
Hyperaldosteronism [aka Conn's syndrome]
Stenosis of renal arteries
· Note: only 5% of hypertension cases are secondary, rest are primary.
Hepatomegaly: 3 common causes, 3 rarer causes Common are 3
Rarer are 3 C's:
MI: sequence of elevated enzymes after MI "C-AST-Le"
· Also: can use the last 'E' for ESR.
Pulmonary embolism: risk factorsTOM SCHREPFER:
Estrogen [pregnancy, post-partum]
TB: features TB is characterised by 4 C's:
Gallstones/cholecystitis: risk factors 5 F's:
Rheumatoid arthritis: featuresRHEUMATOID:
Ragocytes/ Rheumatoid factor (anti-IgG)
ESR increase/ Extra-articular features (restrictive lung disease,
Morning stiffness/ MCP joint
Ankylosis/ Atlantoaxial joint subluxation/ Autoimmune/ ANA
T-cells (CD4)/ TNF
Inflammatory synovial tissue/ Idiopathic/ IL-1
Deformities (swan-neck, boutonniere)
Nuclei have "double minutes"
· And hallmark is n-mycamplification.
Lou Gehrig's is both upper and lower motor neuron signsLoU
= Lower & Upper.
Dandy-Walker syndrome: components "Dandy Walker
Dilated 4th ventricle
Water on the brain
Cerebral palsy: general featuresPALSY:
Lagging motor development
Von Hippel-Lindau: signs and symptomsHIPPEL:
Increased renal cancer
Liver, pancreas, kidney cysts
· Bare bones version: Hippel-Lindau, with H and L as above.
Bronchial obstruction: consequencesAPPLE BABE:
Broncho and lobar pneumonia
Marble bone disease: signs and symptomsMARBLES:
Restricted cranial nerves
Blind & deaf
Erlenmeyer flask deformity
· Eponymous name: Marbles = Albers-Schonberg (anagram).
Heart failure causes"HEART MAy DIE":Hypertension
Rheumatic heart disease
Thyrotoxicosis (incl. pregnancy)
Diet & lifestyle
Renal failure: causesAVID GUT:
Acute tubular necrosis
Diffuse intravascular coagulation
Multiple endocrine neoplasia III: componentsMEN
III is a disease of 3 M's:
Medullary thyroid carcinoma
Medulla of adrenal (pheochromocytoma)
Ulcerative colitis: featuresULCERATIONS:
Remnants of old ulcers [pseudopolyps]
Abscesses in crypts
Toxic megacolon [risk]
Inflamed, red, granular mucosa
Originates at rectum
Virchow's triad (venous thrombosis) "VIRchow":
Reduced blood flow (stasis)
Pyrogenic meningitis: likeliest bug in age group "Explaining
Hot Neck Stiffness":
· In order from birth to death:
E. coli [infants]
Haemophilus influenzae [older infants, kids]
Neisseria meningitis [young adults]
Streptococcus pneumoniae [old folks]
Endometrial carcinoma: risk factorsENDOMET:
Polycystic ovary: morphology, presentation · Morphology is
Cortical stromal fibrosis
· Clinical presentation is OVARY:
Virilism or hirsutism
Reproductive problem [infertile]
Parkinson's disease: symptomsPQRST:
Paucity of expression
Tremor at rest
· If can't remember that Parkinson's tremor is the one that is "resting tremor",
look at the last 3 letters: RST.
Kawasaki disease: features Disease name: a Kawasaki
Usually young children, epidemic in Japan: Japanese child rides the motorcycle.
Conjunctival, oral erythema: red eyes, mouth.
Erythema of palms, soles: red palms, soles.
Generalized rash: rash dots.
Cervical lymphadenitis: enlarged cervical nodes with inflammation arrows.
Vasculitis of arteries: inflammation arrows on arteries.
Cardiovascular sequelae [20%]: inflammation arrows on cardiac arteries.
Treat with aspirin: aspirin headlight.
Interstitial lung disease: causesSARCOIDI:
Connective tissue disease
Herpes I and II: lab findings. She's an odd chick: whenever
she's in a restaurant, she always orders HerPeas and Cowdry.
Herpes I and II have CowdryType A inclusion bodies
Emphysema: types, most important feature of each "Cigarettes
Is Primary Problem":
· Most important feature for each type (in order as above):
Inflammation healed to scar
Protease inhibitor deficiency (a1-antitrypsin)
· "Cigarettes is primary problem" used since cigarettes is most common cause of
· Keeping P's straight: Pan is antitrypsin.
Calcification: metastatic vs. dystrophicMetastatic:
Dystrophic: Damaged tissue.
Haemochromatosis definition, classic triad "Iron man triathalon":
Iron man: deposition of iron in many body tissues.
· Triathalon has 3 components, which match triad:
Swimming: Skin pigmentation
Biking: Bronze diabetes
Marathon: Micronodular pigment cirrhosis
COPD: 4 types and hallmarkABCDE:
Dyspnea [hallmark of group]
· Alternatively: replace Dyspnea with Decreased FEV1/FVC ratio.
MEN I (Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia) syndrome: components "Please
Please Pay Attention To peptic ulceration,
· Adenomas of:
Thyroid, associated with peptic ulceration
· Syndrome is called "Wermer's syndrome".
Lung cancer: presentationABCDE:
Snowball turned to Avalanche
Distruption to airway in bronchus-->pneumonia
Deep venous thrombosis: diagnosisDVT:
Dilated superficial veins/ Discoloration/ Doppler
Venography is gold standard
Tenderness of Thigh and calf
Addison's disease: featuresADDISON:
Destruction by cancer, infection, vascular insufficiency
Sarcoidosis, granulomatous such as TB histiomycosis
Nelson's syndrome [post adrelectomy, increased ACTH]
Breast cancer: risk assessment "Risk can be assessed by
History (family, previous episode)
Abortion/ Age (old)
Cramping after exercise
Deficiency of muscle phosphorylase
Lactate levels fail to rise
Elevated creatine kinase
Skeletal muscle only
Respiratory distress syndrome in infants: major risk factorsPCD (Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia, a cause of Respiratory distress
Deep venous thrombosis: genetic causesALASCA:
Leiden (Factor V)
APC (Activated Protein C)
Carcinomas having tendency to metastasize to bone "Particular
Tumours Love Killing Bone":
Central obesity/ Cervical fat pads/ Collagen fiber
weakness/ Comedones (acne)
Urinary free corisol and glucose increase
Striae/ Suppressed immunity
Hypercortisolism/ Hypertension/ Hyperglycemia/ Hirsutism
Iatrogenic (Increased administration of corticosteroids)
Glucose intolerance/ Growth retardation
Apoptosis vs. necrosis "LIFELESS" (since cells are
· Differences are in:
Swell or shrink
Diabetic ketoacidosis: I vs. II ketONE bodies are
seen in type ONEdiabetes.
Baldness risk factors "Daddy Doesn't Deny
Getting Hair Implants":
Injury to the scalp
Tabes Dorsalis morphologyDORSALIS:
Dorsal column degeneration
Orthopedic pain (Charcot joints)
Reflexes decreased (deep tendon)
Buerger's disease features "burger SCRAPS":
Segmenting thrombosing vasculitis
Associated with smoking
Pain, even at rest
Superficial nodular phlebitis
· Alternatively, if hungry for more detail [sic], "CRISP PIG burgers":
Segmenting, thrombosing vasculitis
Pain, even at rest
Phlebitis (superficial nodular)
Pale hair, skin
Krazy (neurological abnormalities)
Atherosclerosis risk factorsSHIFT MAID:
Triglycerdides & fats
Diet / Drink
Parkinsonism: essential featuresTRAPS:
Tremor (resting tremor)
Postural changes (stooped)
Stare (serpentine stare)
· To remember what kind of tremor and postural change, can look at letter that
follows in TRAPS: Tremor is Resting, Posture is Stooped.
Thrombus: possible fatesDOPE:
Organization & repair
Turner syndrome: componentsCLOWNS:
Cardiac abnormalities (specifically Coartication)
Ovaries underdeveloped (causing sterility, amenorrhea)
Nipples widely spaced
MI: sequence of elevated enzymes after MI "Time to
· From first to appear to last:
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome: symptom triad "PET WASP":
· WASP is the name of the causitive agent: Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein.
· Alternatively: Wiskott=Hot, Aldrich=Itch, Syndrom=Throm.
Asteroid bodies/ [ACE] increase/ Anergy
Respiratory complications/ Renal calculi/ Restrictive lung
disease/ Restrictive cardiomyopathy
Calcium increase in serum and urine/ CD4 helper cells