HomicideGarroting- Ligature strangulation from behind Mugging- By holding neck in the bend of elbow Burking-Smothering+Traumatic asphyxia Force required to obstuct trachea-15kg
Fresh water and salt water drowningFresh water drowning-Hemodilution,hyponatremia,Hyperkalemia Salt water drowning-Pulmonary edema,hemoconcentration Hydrocution- No specific postmortem finding Water in sphenoidal air sinus is a very good sign in drowning.
Rule of HasseTo find intrauterine age of fetus Upto 5 months square root of length After 5 months multiply by 5. Ossification centres Viability attained by 7 months/210 days Ossification center in calcaneum-5 months Ossification center in talus-7 months Ossification center in cuboid-9 months Strenum- 5 ossification centers(66779) if atleast 3 is present, fetus is viable. Testamentary capacity-Ability to make a will
Caspers dictumRate of decomposition in soil water and air- 1:2:8 “According to an old rule of thumb (Casper’s dictum) one week of putrefaction in air is equivalent to two weeks in water, which is equivalent to eight weeks buried in soil, given the same environmental temperature”.
Criminal responsibility of insaneDurham’s rule Currens rule Mcnaughtens rule First permanent tooth to erupt-First molar Thanatology-Science of death Sommer’s movement-Due to shortening and stiffening of muscles in rigor mortis. Proximal 2 cm of anterior descending branch-Commonest site of MI Rigor mortis is due to-reduction of ATP Marbling-Branching pattern of veins after death-Can be seen by 36 hours Clostridium welchii-Adipocere, foamy liver. Evidence of recent sex in male-Lugol’s iodine test.
Chemical testsSeminal stains-Florence,acid phosphatase test,Barberio test Blood stains-Takayama test Blood grp of old blood stain-Absorption elution technique Christmas Y stain-Detects sperm in vaginal mucosa. Nystens Law-Spread of rigor mortis-proximo distally.
- Ischiopubic index
- Sacral index
- Corporobasal index(Diameter of sacrum)
- Medullary index(Bone)
- Brachial index(radius/humerus)
- Crural index(tibia/femur)
- Humerofemoral index
- Cephalic index
- Costochondral junction
- Pubic symphisis
- Gustafson’s method