PMDC First Part syllabus dowload

Syllabus of first professional Part 1 MBBS for the PMDC exam .

PMDC syllabus

contains most important topics and the reference books after each category.the categories are

(A) ANATOMY AND HISTOLOGY
(B) PHYSIOLOGY
(C) BIOCHEMISTRY
(D) BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES

(A) ANATOMY AND HISTOLOGY

  • The course outline is as follows :-
    1. History of anatomy and the different disciplines of the subject
    2. Explain anatomical nomenclature
    GENERAL ANATOMY
    Skeletal System
    1. Axial skeleton
    2. Different bones of human body
    3. Axial and appendicular skeleton
    4. Functions of bone
    5. Classification on the basis of development, region and function
    6. General concepts of ossification of bones
    7. Parts of young bone
    8. Blood supply of long bones
    9. Anatomical factors in bone injury (clinical).
    Joints
    1. Structural , regional and functional classification of joints
    2. Characteristics of synovial joints
    3. Classification of synovial joints
    4. Movements of synovial joints
    5. Anatomy of joints with reference to dislocation and injury (clinical).
    Muscle
    1. Parts of a muscle
    2. Classification of muscle
    3. Blood supply and nerve supply of muscle
    4. Anatomy of the neuromuscular junction
    5. Anatomy of muscle with reference to sprain, spasm and injury
    Cardiovascular System
    1. The cardiovascular system
    2. Arterial and venous system
    Lymphatic System
    1. Anatomy of lymph node
    2. Anatomy of lymph vessels
    3. Function of lymphatic system
    Nervous System
    1. Nervous system in general
    2. Different parts of nervous system and their functions
    3. Anatomical arrangements of the cranial and spinal nerves in general
    4. Autonomic nervous system
    Skin and Fascia
    1. Brief anatomy of the skin, superficial and deep fascia

GENERAL HISTOLOGY

  • 1. Cell as a whole
    2. Different components of a cell and description of its functions
    3. Anatomy of cell membrane
    4. Different parts of a microscope and their function
    5. Types of epithelium and their anatomical location
    6. Connective tissues and its function
    7. Histological appearance of cartilage
    8. Histological appearance of bone
    9. Cartilage and bone
    10. Identification of connective tissue, cartilage and bone under microscope
    11. Histological features of muscle
    12. Identification of muscle tissues under microscope
    13. Histological features of central venous system
    14. Histological features of peripheral nerve and spinal cord
    15. Identification of nerve under microscope
    16. Histology of lymphoid tissue
    17. Identification of lymphoid tissue under microscope
    18. Histology of blood vessel
    19. Identification of blood vessel under microscope
    20. Histology of skin
    21. Identification of skin under microscope

GENERAL EMBRYOLOGY

  • 1. Male and female reproductive organs
    2. Cell division and gametogenesis
    3. Fertilization, cleavage, blastocyst formation and implantation of the embryo
    4. Stages of early embryonic development in second and third week of
    intrauterine life
    5. Development of embryo and foetus
    6. Foetal membrane (amniotic cavity, yolk sac, allantois, umbilical cord and
    placenta)
    GENETICS
    1. Basic principles of genetics
    2. Structure and function of genes and DNA
    3. Relationship of genes and DNA
    4. Teratogenesis
    GROSS ANATOMY
    The study of gross anatomy must lay emphasis on applied anatomy as related to
    clinical medicine and surgery, radiological anatomy, surface anatomy and cross sectional
    anatomy
    Dissection, dissected specimens, models, and computer aided programs, x-rays and
    CT scans can be used.
    Upper Limb
    Duration 11 weeks
    Lower Limb
    Duration 11 weeks
    Thorax
    Duration 7 weeks
    Clinical Module
    1. Common developmental anomalies
    2. Clinical effects of nerve injuries of the upper limb
    3. Clinical effects of nerve injuries of the lower limb
    4. Clinical importance of coronary circulation
    RECOMMENDED BOOKS
    1. Gray’s Anatomy by Prof. Susan Standring 39th Ed., Elsevier.
    2. Clinical Anatomy for Medical Students by Richard S.Snell.
    3. Clinically Oriented Anatomy by Keith Moore.
    4. Clinical Anatomy by R.J. Last, Latest Ed.
    5. Cunningham’s Manual of Practical Anatomy by G.J. Romanes, 15th Ed.,
    Vol-I, II and III.
    6. The Developing Human. Clinically Oriented Embryology by Keith L. Moore,
    6th Ed.
    7. Wheater’s Functional Histology by Young and Heath, Latest Ed.
    8. Medical Histology by Prof. Laiq Hussain.
    9. Neuroanatomy by Richard S.Snell.
    (B) PHYSIOLOGY
    The course outline is as follows :
    BASIC AND CELL PHYSIOLOGY
    1. Functional organization of human body
    2. Homeostasis
    3. Control systems in the body
    4. Cell membrane and its functions
    5. Cell organelles and their functions
    6. Genes –their control and function
    Blood
    1. Composition and general functions of blood
    2. Plasma proteins their production and function
    3. Erythropoiesis and red blood cell function
    4. Structure, function, production and different types of haemoglobin
    5. Iron absorption storage and metabolism
    6. Blood indices
    7. Function, production and type of white blood cells
    8. Function and production of platelets
    9. Clotting mechanism of blood
    10. Blood groups and their role in blood transfusion
    11. Complications of blood transfusion with reference to ABO & RH incompatibility
    12. Components of reticuloendothelial system their gross and microscopic structure
    including (tonsil, lymph node and spleen)
    13. Development and function of reticuloendothelial system
    Clinical Module
    1. Anemia and its different types
    2. Blood indices in various disorders
    3. Clotting disorders (Haemophilia etc.)
    4. Blood grouping and cross matching
    5. Immunity
    Nerve and Muscle
    1. Structure and function of neuron
    2. Physiological properties of nerve fibers
    3. Physiology of action potential
    4. Conduction of nerve impulse
    5. Nerve degeneration and regeneration
    6. Synapses
    7. Physiological structure of muscle
    8. Skeletal muscle contraction
    9. Skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscle contraction
    10. Neuromuscular junction and transmission
    11. Excitation contraction coupling
    12. Structure and function of motor unit
    Clinical Module
    1. Perform nerve conduction studies and explain their clinical importance
    2. Myopathies and neuropathies
    3. Peripheral nerve injuries
    Cardiovascular System
    1. Heart and circulation
    2. Function of cardiac muscle
    3. Cardiac pacemaker and cardiac muscle contraction
    4. Cardiac cycle
    5. ECG, its recording and interpretation
    6. Common arrhythmias and its mechanism of development
    7. Types of blood vessels and their function
    8. Hemodynamics of blood flow (local control systemic circulation its regulation
    and control)
    9. Peripheral resistance its regulation and effect on circulation
    10. Arterial pulse
    11. Blood pressure and its regulation
    12. Cardiac output and its control
    13. Heart sounds and murmurs
    14. Importance, circulation, and control of venous returnon
    15. Coronary circulation
    16. Splanchnic, pulmonary and cerebral circulation
    17. Triple response and cutaneous circulation
    18. Foetal circulation and circulatory changes at birth
    Clinical Module
    1. Clinical significance of cardiac cycle, correlation of ECG and heart sounds to
    cardiac cycle
    2. Clinical significance of cardiac cycle, interpretation of ischemia and arrhythmias
    3. Effects of hypertension
    4. Clinical significance of heart sounds
    5. Effects of ischemia
    6. Shock
    Respiratory System
    1. Function of respiratory tract
    2. Respiratory and non-respiratory function of the lungs
    3. Mechanics of breathing
    4. Production & function of surfactant and compliance of lungs
    5. Protective reflexes
    6. Lung volumes and capacities including dead space
    7. Diffusion of gases across the alveolar membrane
    8. Relationship between ventilation and perfusion
    9. Mechanism of transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood
    10. Nervous and chemical regulation of respiration
    11. Abnormal breathing
    12. Hypoxia, its causes and effects
    13. Cyanosis, its causes and effects
    Clinical Module
    1. Clinical importance of lung function tests
    2. Causes of abnormal ventilation and perfusion
    3. Effects on pneumothoax, pleural effusion, and pneumonia
    4. Respiratory failure
    5. Artificial respiration and uses & effects of O2 therapy
    6. Clinical significance of hypoxia, cyanosis, and dyspnoea
    Skin and Body Temperature Regulation
    PHYSIOLOGY PRACTICALS
    Haematology
    1. Use of the microscope
    2. Determination of haemoglobin
    3. Determination of erythrocyte sedimentation rate
    4. Determining packed cell volume
    5. Measuring bleeding and clotting time
    6. RBC count
    7. Red cell indices
    8. WBC count
    9. Leucocyte count
    10. Prothrombin and thrombin time
    Respiratory System
    1. Pulmonary volume, their capacities and clinical interpretation
    Cardiovascular System
    1. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (to be coordinated with the department of medicine)
    2. Examination of arterial pulse
    3. ECG recording and interpretation
    4. Arterial blood pressure
    5. Effects of exercise and posture on blood pressure
    6. Apex beat and normal heart sounds
    RECOMMENDED BOOKS
    1. Textbook of Physiology by Guyton and Hall, Latest Ed.
    2. Review of Medical Physiology by William F. Ganong, Latest Ed.
    3. Physiology by Berne and Levy, Latest Ed.
    4. Human Physiology : The Basis of Medicine by Gillian Pocock,
    Christopher D. Richards, Latest Ed.
    5. Physiological Basis of Medical Practice by John B. West and Taylor,
    12th Ed.
    (C) BIOCHEMISTRY
    The course outline is as follows :
    Cell Biochemistry
    1. Biochemical composition and functions of the cell
    2. Cell membranes and their chemical composition
    3. Importance of lipids and proteins in cell membranes
    4. Chemistry of signals and receptors
    5. Membrane transport including active transport, passive transport, simple and
    facilitated diffusion
    6. Methods to study cell biochemistry
    Acid Base Balance and Body Fluids
    1. Ionization of water, week acids and bases
    2. pH and pH scale
    3. pK values, dissociation constant and titration curve of week acids
    4. Body buffers and their mechanism of action
    5. Henderson – Hesselbach equation
    6. Acid base regulation in human body
    7. Biochemical mechanisms for control of water and electrolyte balance
    8. Types of particles in solution
    9. Importance of selectively permeable membranes, osmosis and osmotic
    pressure, surface tension, viscosity also in relation to body fluids
    Clinical Module
    1. Acid base control in clinical setting
    Carbohydrates
    1. Carbohydrates, their biochemical function and classification
    2. Structure, functions and derivatives of monosaccharides
    3. Structure and function of oligosaccharides and disaccharides
    4. Polysaccharides and their biochemical role
    5. Biomedical importance of carbohydrates
    Clinical Module
    1. Clinical importance of carbohydrates
    Proteins
    1. Proteins and their biochemical importance
    2. Physicochemical , functional nutritional and structural properties of proteins
    3. Structure, functions and properties of amino acids
    4. Amino acids and their nutritional significance
    5. Importance of amino acids in pH maintenance
    6. Separation of proteins, salting out, electrophoreisis, chromatography and
    centrifugation
    7. Immunoglobulins and their biochemical function
    8. Plasma proteins and their clinical function
    Clinical Module
    1. Clinical importance of proteins and amino acids
    2. Clinical significance of immunoglobulins
    3. Plasma proteins in clinical practice
    Nucleotide and Nucleic Acids
    1. Nucleotides and their biochemical role
    2. Structure, function and biochemical role of nucleotides
    3. Synthesis of purines and pyramidines and their clinical role
    4. Structure, function and types of nucleic acids
    Clinical Module
    1. Clinical significance of nucleic acids and nucleotides
    Lipids
    1. Classification of lipids and their biochemical functions
    2. Structure and biochemical function of phospholipids, glycolpids, and
    sphingolipids
    3. Classification of fatty acids and their biochemical functions
    4. Functions of essential fatty acids
    5. Eicosanoides and their function in health and disease
    6. Steroids and their biochemical role
    7. Cholesterol, its structure chemistry and function
    8. Lipid peroxidation and its significance
    Clinical Module
    1. Clinical significance of lipids
    2. Clinical importance of steroids
    Enzymes
    1. Classification/ Nomenclature
    2. Enzymes and catalysts
    3. Function of enzymes and catalysts
    4. Co-enzymes and co-factors
    5. Iso-enzymes and their clinical importance
    6. Factors affecting enzyme activity (Michaelis – Menten and Lineweaverbuk
    equations)
    7. Classification of enzyme inhibitors and their biochemical importance
    8. Therapeutic use and application of enzymes in clinical diagnosis
    Clinical Module
    1. Importance of enzyme in clinical practice
    Haemoglobin
    1. Porphyrins and metabolism of haem
    2. Synthesis and structure of haemoglobin
    3. Types and function of haemoglobin
    4. O2 binding capacity of haemoglobin and factors regulating & affecting it
    5. Breakdown of haemoglobin, formation of bile pigments their transport and
    excretion
    6. Biochemical causes of hyper-bilirubinaemia and differentiation between
    different types of jaundice
    7. Causes and types of haemoglobinopathies
    8. Porphyrias
    Vitamins and Minerals
    1. Vitamins and their different types
    2. Classification of vitamins, their chemical structure & biochemical function
    3. Absorption of vitamins and minerals
    4. Daily requirements, sources of water and fat soluble vitamins
    5. Effects of vitamin deficiency
    6. Role of vitamins as co-enzymes
    7. Hypervitaminosis
    8. Minerals in human nutrition, sources, biochemical actions and recommended
    daily allowance (RDA).
    9. Sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sulfur, iodine, fluoride
    etc.
    10. Trace elements as Fe, Zn, Se, I, Cu, Cr, Cd and Mn
    Nutrition
    1. Caloric requirements of the body
    2. Balanced diet
    3. Protein energy malnutrition
    4. Marasmus
    5. Kwashiorkor
    6. Marasmic-kwashiorkor
    7. Nutritional requirements in:
    􀂃 Pregnancy
    􀂃 Lactation
    􀂃 New born
    􀂃 Nutritional disorders
    BIOCHEMISTRY PRACTICALS
    1. Introduction to laboratory technique / equipment
    2. Preparation of solution / normal solution and normal saline
    3. Qualitative analysis on carbohydrates, proteins, and fats
    4. Chemical analysis of urine (normal and abnormal specimens)
    RECOMMENDED BOOKS
    1. Harper’s Biochemistry by Robbert K. Murray, Daryl K. Granner, Peter A.
    Mayes, Victor W. Rodwell, Latest Ed.
    2. Lippincott’s Illustrated Review of Biochemistry by Pamela C. Champe and
    Richard A. Harvey, Latest Ed.
    3. Practical Clinical Biochemistry by Varley.
    4. Textbook of Biochemistry by Devlin, 5th Ed.
    5. Textbook of Medical Biochemistry Vol-I and II by M.A. Hashmi.
    6. Biochemistry by Stryer, Lubert, Latest Ed.
    (D) BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES
    The course outline is as follows :
    1. Introduction
    􀂃 Behavioural Sciences and their importance in health.
    􀂃 Bio-Psycho-Social Model of Healthcare.
    􀂃 Desirable attitudes.
    􀂃 Correlation of brain, mind and Behavioural Sciences.
    􀂃 Roles of a doctor.
    2. Understanding Behaviour
    􀂃 Sensation, sense organs / special organs.
    􀂃 Perception and factors affecting it.
    􀂃 Attention and concentration.
    􀂃 Memory and its stages, types and methods to improve it.
    􀂃 Types and theories of thinking.
    􀂃 Cognition and levels of cognition.
    􀂃 Problem solving and decision making strategies.
    􀂃 Communication. Its types, modes and factors affecting it. Non-verbal cues.
    􀂃 Characteristics of a good communicator.
    3. Personality and Intelligence
    􀂃 Stages and characteristics of psychological growth and development.
    􀂃 Personality and development theories of personality. Factors affecting
    personality development.
    􀂃 Assessment of personality. Influence of personality in determining reactions
    during health, disease, hospitalization, stress, etc.
    􀂃 Intelligence and its types. Relevance of IQ and EQ. Methods of enhancing
    EQ and effectively using IQ. Factors affecting intelligence and their
    assessment.
    4. Stress Management
    􀂃 Definition and classification of stress and stressors.
    􀂃 Relationship of stress and stressors with illness.
    􀂃 Stress and health.
    􀂃 Anxiety.
    􀂃 Coping skills.
    􀂃 Psychological defence mechanisms
    􀂃 Conflict and frustration.
    􀂃 Adjustment and maladjustment.
    􀂃 Patient anxiety / stress.
    􀂃 Psychological theories of pain perception and patients’ experience of pain.
    􀂃 Treatment adherence and compliance.
    􀂃 Psychological techniques including hypnosis.
    5. Doctor – Patient Relationship
    􀂃 Concept of boundaries and psychological reactions in doctor – patient
    relationship (such as transference and counter transference)
    6. Medical Ethics
    􀂃 Introduction of Ethics in health professionals.
    􀂃 Hippocratic Oath – Do’s and Don’ts.
    􀂃 Responsibilities of health professionals.
    􀂃 Responsibilities of health professionals.
    􀂃 Concept of medical ethics.
    􀂃 Interaction with patients and colleagues.
    􀂃 Standards of ethical medical practice.
    􀂃 Common ethical dilemmas in doctor – patients relations. Interaction with
    families, teachers, pharmaceutical industry.
    􀂃 Rights of patients and doctor (in international law, constitution of Pakistan,
    PMDC, Islam).
    􀂃 Informed consent.
    􀂃 Patient confidentiality.
    􀂃 Disclosure of information.
    􀂃 Code regarding advertisement of services and publicity.
    RECOMMENDED BOOKS
    1. A Handbook of Behavioural Sciences for Medical and Dental
    Students by Mowadat H. Rana, Sohail Ali and Mansoor Mustafa, 2006,
    University of Health Sciences Lahore.
    2. Medicine in Society ; Behavioural Sciences for Medical Students,
    edited by Christopher Dowrick, 2001, Arnold Publisher.
    3. Behavioural Sciences in Clinical Medicine by Wolf, Stewert,
    1976.
    4. Developmental Psychology for Healthcare Professions by
    Katherine A. Billingham.

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